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A process where people are given the opportunity to choose representatives who will form
representative institutions and government.
An election allows the public to select who they want to represent their wishes in
Parliament and make decisions on our behalf
Holding government to account
Elections allow us to deliver our verdict on the current government and if we are
dissatisfied, we can remove them and elect a new government into power
(e.g.…read more

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A political system which tends to throw up a government that enjoys a majority within
representative institutions and therefore is able to dominate party politics.
The effects of firstpastthepost
in 1951, Labour won more votes than the Conservatives but they had 26 more seats than
in 1974, Conservatives beat Labour by more than 200,000 votes but had four fewer seats
in 2005, Conservatives won 0.…read more

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UKIP won 12.6% of the national vote but only secured one parliamentary seat
Conservative vote rose only by 0.8%
Labour lost votes throughout the country ­ they had a huge defeat in Scotland and lost
many votes to UKIP
two leaders lost their position as party leader: Nick Clegg and Ed Miliband
the Green Party increased its share of the vote
The result in England
if England were a separate country, the Conservatives would rule with a comfortable
Conservatives won 41.…read more

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UK elections are free from corruption
Because voting remains secret and
counting votes is regulated
Majority systems
Description of electoral systems where the winning candidate is required to win an overall
majority, i.e. more than 50 per cent of the votes cast.…read more

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The final totals will now produce an
absolute majority
Plurality systems
Electoral systems where the winning candidate does not require an overall majority but merely
needs to win more votes than any other candidate.
Plurality systems are fairly uncommon, the US and UK are the most common examples of its use
i.e. FPTP.…read more

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Wasted votes Many voters may feel
Many votes cast do not have any unrepresented and may n
impact on final result in the future, affecting tu
Lack of choice Tactical voting It affect democracy; a lac
Voters only get one vote choice puts people off vo
Voters cannot choose between therefore may choose no
candidates from the same party ­turnout may decrease
In most constituencies, it's a two
party contest
Proportional representation
A description of a number of electoral systems and the effect that they…read more

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Normally there is a threshold of
between 15 per cent which a party
must win to gain any seats
Twothirds of the seats elected using
The last third are elected on the basis of
a closed regional list
The variable topup system adjusts the
Scottish proportions of votes cast on the list
Additional member Parliament and system
systems (AMS) Welsh Parties who do less well have their
Assembly votes adjusted upwards, those who do
proportionally well have their votes
adjusted downwards
This is to…read more

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Disadvantage : no single party gains gained a good sha
won a majority = power sharing ­ takes the seats
a long time to pass decisions which
could have a negative impact in
events of crisis etc.…read more

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Confuses voters Disadvantage Voters may not understand how top up
seats are calculated ­ may feel
disengaged from the political process,
may not respect final result
Dominance of Both Advantage : allows smaller parties to do
two parties better and win more seats
reduced Disadvantage : these smaller parties
may not be fit to govern
Refers to the typical structure of parties within a political system. It describes the normal number
of parties that compete effectively.…read more



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