AS Biology Organelles and other things

Unit 1 Module 1 of AS Biology.

Organelles, name, description and function

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Nucleus

Description 

* Surrounded by Nuclear Membrane or envelope which contains many pores.

* Contains chromatin and nucleolus.


Function

* The chromatin contains the DNA (genetic material) which controls the cell's activities.

* The pores allow substances (E.g. RNA) to move between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

* The nucleolus makes RNA

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Mitochondrion

Description 

* Oval

* Have a double membrane - Inner is folded to form Cristae.

* Inside Cristae is the Matrix, which contains enzymes involved in respiration.

Funtion

* Site of respiration, where ATP is produced

* Found in large numbers in active cells which need a lot of energy

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Endopolasmic Reticulum

ROUGH

Description
* A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space
* Surfaced is covered in ribosomes

Function
* Transports proteins that have been made in the ribosomes

SMOOTH

Description
* Similar to rough but with no ribosomes

Function
* Transports Lipids around the cell

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Cilium

CILIUM Description
* Small, hair-like structures on the surface membrane of some animal cells
* Outer Membrane and a ring of 9 pairs of microtubules inside. One pair of microtubules in the middle

Function
* Microtubules allow cilia to move
* Movement moves substances along the cell surface

RIBOSOME Description
* A very small organelle either floating free inthe the cytoplasm or attached to the RER

Function
* The site where proteins are ma

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Chloroplast (Plant Cell)

Description

* Small flattened structure found in the plant cells

* Surrounded by a double membrane

* Thylakoid membranes inside membrane. These are stacked to form grana

* Grana are linked together by lamellae - thin flat pieces of thylakoid membrane

Function

* The site of photosynthesis

* Light-dependant in Grana

* Light-independant in Stroma

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Lysosomes

Description

* Round organelle surrounded by a membrane

* No clear internal structure

Function

* Contains digestive enzymes used to digest invading cells

* Also used to destroy the cell when it needs to be replaced

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Cell Membrane + Cytoskeleton

CELL MEMBRANE
Description

* Made mainly of protein and lipids

Function
* Regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cells.
* Has receptor molecules on it which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.
CYTOSKELETON

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Spindles + Centrioles

SPINDLES
Desription
* Small, hollow cylinders
* Contain a ring of microtubules, seen in animal cells during cell division
Function
* Packages the substances that are produced by the cell, mainly proteins and glycoproteins.
* Also makes lysosomes

CENTRIOLES
Description
* Group of smooth endoplasmic reticulum containing flattened sacs. Vesicles are seen at the edge of these sacs
Function
* Involved in the seperation of chromosomes during cell division.

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