AQA Biology AS, UNIT 2

The variety of life: Plant cell structure - Leaf palisade cell, choloplasts and cell wall

  • Created by: Amy
  • Created on: 12-04-10 19:09

Leaf palisade cell

Features of a leaf palisade cell to help its function of photosynthesis:

  • Long, thin cells which form a continuous layer on the surface of the leaf to absorb sunlight
  • Lots of chloroplasts arranged in the best positions to absorb as much sunlight as possible
  • A large vacuole which forces the chloroplasts and the cytoplasm to the edge of the cell
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Leaf palisade cell


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The main features of chloroplasts:

  • The chloroplast envelope which surrounds the cell and controls what enters and leaves due to its highly selective properties
  • The grana (where the first stage of photosynthesis takes place) are stacks of disc-like structures called thylakoids. The thylakoids contain chlorophyll
  • The stroma (where the second stage of photosynthesis takes place) is a 'fluid-filled matrix' and also contains other structures, such as starch grains

Chloroplasts are adapted for absorbing sunlight and carrying out photosynthesis in the following ways:

  • The granal membranes = large surface area for the attachment of chlorophyll, enzymes and electron carriers
  • Chloroplasts contain both ribosomes and DNA so they can make some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis
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Cell wall

Cell walls have these features:

  • Large number of polysaccharides e.g. cellulose
  • Middle lamella = holds adjacent cells together but also marks the boundary between them


  • To give strength to the plant as a whole
  • To prevent the cell bursting under the osmotic pressure created by the entry of water
  • To allow water to pass along it, therefore contributing to the movement of water through a plant
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Thanks for this! I hate studying the plant bit in biology and this was helpful and precise!



Thanks these are really good.



Cool, I may print this off (:



copied straight from aqa nellson thornes book

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