Approaches to profiling

My notes on my approaches to profiling, which MUST come up this time! :') 

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- Profiling helps the ploice to identify the perpetrators of serious crime

- Aims to produce descriptions of suspects that can be used in the search

- Profiling does not solve crimes but can narrow down potential suspects

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Second paragraph- British (bottom up) approach

- Builds a profile from the crime scene information

- Assmumes interpersonal coherence: behaviours seen at that crime scene refelect those of their everyday life

- Data analysis: linking the crime to rare behaviours e.g. certains gestures

- Forensic awareness: Patterns in the precaustions they take to avoid getting caught

- For example someone who has previous convictions are likely to be more forensically aware

- This has been successfully applied in the case of John Duffy (the railway ******)  

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Third paragraph - British (bottom up) A02

- Criticised for the assmuption that their behaviour is predictable, but that fact that they have committed a crime makes there behaviour unpredictable

- interpersonal coherence relies on witnesses/ victims = unreliable because of trauma

- Copson (1995) Asked police officers whether they felt profiling was helpful; 

*Over half said that it had provided something extra

* 80% said the infomation was useful

*14% said it had assisted in solving the case

* 3% said that it had resulted in an arrest

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Fourth paragraph- US ( top down)

- Crime reconstruction and profile generation are driven from above by the crime scene classification

- constucted by the FBI, who interviewed 36 serial killers about their crimes. They developed a classification system, each "type" of criminal displayed a different set of characteristics

- For example an organise crime is likely to be committed by an intellectual, social competant person.

- Four stages of profiling:

* Data assimilation: avaialbe data is collected from many sources

* crime scene classification: Place the crime into a typology

* Crime reconstruction: Hypotheses developed about the sequence of events

* Profile generation: a profile is develeoped with info such as age, ethnicity and personality

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Fifth paragraph - US (top down) AO2

- Can only be used when there is multiple offences 

- profiling rarely leads to an arrest but does focus and investigation

- The FBI interviews: 

* were an oppurtunity sample

* they were not standardised

* these people are known for deceiving, manipulating and lieing 

- Canter et al (2004) Found no typologies within his research

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Sixth paragraph - Geographical profiling

- Aims to construct an offenders cognitive map of their "activity" 

- Indicates where they travel, work, live and socialise 


- best indicates a single offender where as others narrow down suspects

- Canter and Larkin: 87% of rapists attack in a reigon around theor homes

- Sort of, common sense really. if someone has a full time job they aren't liley going to be a murderer that attcks in 9-5 times 

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- Have been successfully applied 

- Any technique that helps the police should be used even if it does rarely lead to arrest 

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