Mark Scheme


·         Description of the main approaches in profiling

·         Description of relevant case material

·         Description of psychological assumptions underpinning approaches to profiling


·         Evaluation of case material

·         Evaluation of main profiling approaches

·         Evaluation of psychological assumptions

·         Evaluation of profiling as a whole – ethics and efficacy 

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The US (top down) Approach

·         36 serial killers researched (background, personality, behaviours, crimes, motives)

·         Crime scene analysis reveals criminal type (organised or disorganised)

·         Data assimilation, scene classification, crime reconstruction, profile generation

·         Top down as type to profile

·         Doesn’t solve crimes, only used in cases with multiple offences

·         Douglas (1981) rarely leads to an arrest

·         Not standardised and small sample

·         Canter et al (2004) found no organised or disorganised distinction

·         Holmes and Holmes (1998) extended the types in the approach, Canter still proved the new types were typical of most people, not just murderers making them un-useful 

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The British (bottom up) Approach

·         Assumes interpersonal coherence

·         Information is comprised from data analysis and forensic awareness

·         Facet theory – smallest space analysis and SSA used

·         Railway ****** case

·         Builds a profile from the crime scene – bottom up

·         Based on firm statistical data

·         House (1997) showed clearly ****** types could be indentified

·         Santilla et al (2003) found consistent patterns in arsonists

·         Copson (1995) 80% of police thought profiling was a useful contribution to cases

·         Mokros and Alison (2002) demographically similar ******s did not commit similar crimes – profiling is ineffective

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Geographical Profiling

·         Shows where offender works, lives, travels and socialises

·         Creates a cognitive map of the criminals mind space

·         Creates a 3D jeopardy space

·         Canter and Larkin (1993) 87% of rapists attack around their home

·         Snook et al (2005) 63% of all serial killers kill within 10km of their home 

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