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Function of cells which animal and plant cells hav

 Nucleus:  contains genetic material which controls the activities of cell

Cytoplasm:   most chemical processes take place here, controlled by     enzymes

Cell Membrane:  controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell

Mitochondria: Most energy is released by respiration here

Ribosomes: Protein synthesis happens here

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Extra parts of plant cells

cell wall: strengthens the cell

chloroplasts: contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

permanent vacuole:filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid


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Specialised cells

Leaf cell: absorbs light energy from photosynthesis,Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.

Root hair cell: absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil,Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.

Sperm Cell: Fertilises an egg cell,The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.

Red blood cells: Contain haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells,Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.

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  • the process in which there is movement of a substance from an area of high concentration of that substance to an area of lower concentration
  • In the lungs, the blood will continue to take in oxygen from the alveolar air spaces provided the concentration of oxygen there is greater than in the blood. Oxygen diffuses across the alveolar walls into the blood, and the circulation takes the oxygen-rich blood away.
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  • diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
  • Osmosis is important to plants. They gain water by osmosis through their roots. Water moves into plant cells by osmosis, making them turgid or stiff so they that able to hold the plant upright
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