Characters are introduced:
- Jones and his drunk behavior "He lurched across the yard" "Too drunk to remember to shut the pop-holes"; the animal hierachy "on a raised platform" "First came the dogs, and then the pigs near front platform" "hens on windowsills" "sheep and cows lay behind the pigs" ; animal friendships "Boxer and clover came in together" "he was devoted to Boxer" "great care lest their be some small animal concealed in the sraw"
Old Major gives his speech:
- speech has 5 main purposes:
to show man as the real enemy; warn against mans teaching; encourage rebellion; to call for equality; to teach revolutionary song - Beasts of England.
There are already problems present with Old Majors speech:
- Animals have certain positions - dogs and pigs have best positions - suggests they believe themselves to be superior
- Dogs and pigs only animals clever enough to learn song - highlights the advantage they have over others
- Irony of dogs chasing the wild rats after "All animals are equal"
Meeting in the barn describes main characters personalities:
Boxer and clover are caring not to step on any animals - Dishonest characters may take advantage of their consideration
Boxer described as "Not of first rate intelligence" - his ultimate downfall
Mollie and the cat are selfish and do not care about the idea of a revolution
The animals begin to prepare for the rebellion
- As the pigs are the cleverest they turn Old Majors ideas into Animalism
- THEME: (education) The animals that take charge are the ones who are educated
Not all the animals can understand Old Majors ideas and this presents a problem
- Some of the animals feel that they have a "duty of loyalty" to Jones
- Some animals prefer to beleive in Sugarcandy Mountain, the story told by Moses the Raven
- Most animals cant read the 10 commandments that the pigs write on the wall
The lack of understanding threatens Animal farm - the animals who dont understand the principles can't uphold them - and the ruling pigs will be able to change animalism as they please.
One of Old Majors prophecies of "all animals are equal" is not followed:
- The pigs take charge
- The pigs are responsible for the missing milk
- The pigs put themselves before others
- Animals are trusting as they dont confront the pigs
THEME: (animalism) - The pigs carry on controlling after the rebellion and dont encourage equality.
- Record harvest, finished in record time
- Boxer displays incredible strength and keeness
- Sunday meetings for raising of flag, discussion and planning
- Snowball and Napoleon never seem to agree at meetings
- Snowball invents slogan "four legs good, two legs bad"
- Snowball concentrates on comittee work; Napoleon on educating the young
- Squealer justifies keeping milk and apples for pigs
The revolution does not seem promising
- The animals have a hard time working on the farm
- Not all animals put animalism first and are selfish - Mollie and the cat in particular are selfish animals
- Napoleon and Snowball disagree on almost every issue
Social classes become more obvious
- Pigs are coming up with more resolutions
- pigs separate themselves from other animals and behave as if they are superior
- Sqeualer justfies the pigs keeping the milk and apples through the use of propaganda
This chapter is the first time in which the pigs use their authority so openly and it is also the first time that squealer uses propaganda as a way of controlling the animals thoughts.
Orwell shows the pigs as becoming more like their human masters - however the pigs are treating the animals worse than what Famer Jones did.
- Mr Frederick and Mr Pilkington whos lands are next to 'Animal Farm' become worried that their animals are getting ideas of a rebellion
- The farmers invade Animal Farm but are driven out, thanks to careful planning from Snowball
- The battle of the cowshed becomes a national anniversary
Humans become worried that rebellion will spread:
- pigeons teach other animals 'Beasts of England' - ALLEGORY - Trotsky wanted to spread the revolution as far as possible, and so does snowball
The animals win the battle of the Cowshed:
- Snowball is an excellent general
- Snowball leads the charge
- Napoleon's commitment is more questionable - his role isn't described, indicating that he didnt do much at all
There are conseqeunces of the fight:
- Boxer becomes concerned for the stable boy he injured -these feelings contrast with Napoleon's use of violence
- "the only good human being is a dead one"
- Snowball and boxer recieve "first class medals", the dead sheep "second class" - INEQUALITY - Separates the animals
- Mollie dissapears
- Snowball wants the animals to build a windmill so that they would only have to work for three days a week. Napoleon disagrees with Snowballs plans and says that food production should be the first priority
- Napoleon wants firearms for defence: Snowball wants to send out pigeons to spread the word of the rebellion to other farms
- Napoleon gets his dogs to chase Snowball from the farm
- Napoleon clamps down and abolishes Sunday Meetings
- Napoleon decides to build windmill
SNOWBALL AND NAPOLEONS ARGUMENTS COME HEAD TO HEAD
Napoleon starts to take absolute control:
- He cancels sunday meetings to make a special committee of pigs
- the other animals aren't clever enough to protest against Napoleon so suffer in silence
- Squealer promotes the new regime using propaganda.
This is the beginning of Napoleons dictatorship and a sharp contrast with the harmony that came after the rebellion. The more like Man Napoleon becomes, the less likely the society will be equal.
- Animals are working harder than ever, even on sunday's
- Progress on the windmill is slow, in spite of determined efforts by Boxer
- Napoleon begins trading with other farms
- Pigs move into Jones' house
- Gale destroys windmill - Napoleon blames Snowball
Pigs begin to change the rules:
- Napoleon introduces work on Sunday's - "voluntary" but if not carried out rations are halved - THREATS
- Napoleon decides to work with Mr Whymper - Breaking of Major's rules. Capatalism is back
- Pigs move into farmhouse and sleep in bed - Becoming like man
- Change the original commandment - "No animal shall sleep in beds with sheets"
- Pigs get up an hour later than the other animals and it is just accepted
Squealer introduces fear - threatening the animals that Jones might come back if the pigs dont get enough rest
Snowball is used as a scapegoat - This is a useful tactic. Makes the animals focus in an invisible enemy, rather than Napoleons reign of terror
- News of starvation on Animal farm begins to circulate
- The hens start a rebellion and smash their own eggs in protest of having to sell them. Nine hens die
- Snowball gets blamed for everything that goes wrong. Execution of four pigs who objected to cancellation of sunday meetings
- singing Beasts of England is forbidden
Napoleon places blame on Snowball, however still has to face resistance:
- Hens smash their eggs in protest
- one of the few times the animals stand up to Napoleon, and Napoleon is ruthless about it
Napoleon steps up campaign of terror:
- Sets his dogs on anyone that threatens him
- Boxer is attacked for not believing the rumours about Snowball
- Boxer defeats the dogs
- Napoleon forces confessions form many other traitors and they are executed
- Squealer reassures animals that the production of food is increasing
- The windmill is completed
- Napoleon sells timber to Frederick but is paid in forged notes
- Frederick attacks the farm and blows up the windmill
- Pigs discover case of whiskey and get drunk celebrating victory over Frederick
"No animal shall kill any other animal without cause" - this is a newly changed commandment to justfiy Napoleons executions
Squealer continues to spread propaganda - is is ironic
There is unrest on the farm:
- Animals think they are no better than they were under Jones
- Napoleon trades with Frederick but is payed with forged notes
- Frederick blows up windmill so animals attack - many are wounded and die
Alcohol makes things worse:
- Celebrate with whisky
- alcohol linked to corruption - only the pigs drink so sign of inequality - it is also a human habit
- Squealer changes the alcohol commandement, adding "in excess"
- The cold winter brings suffering as food becomes scarce
- Napoleon orders frequent spontaneous demonstrations
- Animal farm is declared a republic and Napoleon is elected presidnent
- Boxer dies of overwork and taken to the knackers
- The pigs hold a memorial banquet over Boxer's death
Animalism is completely corrupted.
Pigs use new tactics to keep farm happy:
- Spontaneous demonstration - Parade around Napoleon
- Farm becomes a republic - Napoleon as president
- Moses returns speaking about Sugarcandy Mountain
- The pigs are happy Moses stay on the farm, so that the animals remain quiet and obedient
- The years pass by and there is a new generation of animals who believe in Animalism but dont really understand it
- the farm is better off and the windmill is at last complete
- pigs walk on 2 legs and increasingly behave like humans
- pigs hold party and invite their human neighbours
- the other animals are looking through the window and are amazed; they can no longer tell which is man and which is pig
Nobody remembers life before Napoleon.
The pigs profit while others suffer:
- The farm is rich but animals are working even harder
- the pigs and dogs are the only ones that benefit from the money
- the animals have all been brainwashed
- "ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL, BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS"
Pig of Human?
- Pigs carry whips and wear clothes
- stops animals calling each other comrade - shows equality
- erase memories of Major and whar he taught
- Become Manor Farm again
- Napoleon is a tryrant like Jones
The revolution ultimately acheived nothing