Additives are chemicals both synthetic and natural.
The functional properties of additives are;
1. They alter physical characteristics and its sensory characteristics.
2. lengthen storage life
3. Change nutritional status
Additives that affect storage life
Preservatives help to prevent wastage through spoilage an example is sorbic acid E200 which is found in soft drinks.
Antioxidants are added to food containing fats and oils to slow down or prevent rancidity, this extends the shelf life. Some antioxidants stop the chemical reaction involved in rancidity, whereas others remove oxygen from a product, an example is ascorbic acid E300 found in fruit drinks.
Colours are also examples of additives which are added to food and drinks.
The colour yellow or orange is the number E100 to 110.
The colour red is E120 to 129.
The colour blue is E131 to 133.
Properties of flavour enhancers
Monosodium Glutamate or MSG, stimulates taste buds. Large amounts of MSG have been known to cause sickness.
Sweetners are divided into two types. Firstly intense sweetners, they are many times sweeter than sucrose for example aspartame. The second type are bulke sweetners which are mostly hydrogenated sugars, examples are mannitol and sorbitol.
Emulsifiers and stabilisers can affect physical characteristis they are in the E400 range. Emulsifiers allows the dispersion of tiny droplets of oil in water to give a stable emulstion. An example is E322 lecithin.