Max Weber - social action theory
Weber argued structural and action approaches are necessary for understaning human behaviour. He said this involves two levels :
1) THE LEVEL OF CAUSE - explaining the objective structural factors that shape behaviour.
2) THE LEVEL OF MEANING - understanding the subjective meanings that individuals attach to their actions.
Weber - Types of action
Weber identitifes four types of action based on their meanign for the actor:
1) INSTRUMENTALLY RATIONAL ACTION - where the actor calculates the most efficient means of achieving a given goal.
2) VALUE RATIONAL ACTION - towards a goal that the actor regards as desirable for its own sake (eg worshipping God in order to get to Heaven).
3) TRADITIONAL ACTION - is customary, routine or habitual aciton.
4) AFFECTUAL ACTION - expresses emotion (eg weeping out of grief).