ACIDS AND BASES
PH- ph of 1-4 is strong acidic, ph of 5-6 is a weakly acidic, ph of 7 is neutral. 8-9 is weakly alkaline. 10-14 is strongly alkaline.
common lab acids are- hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric.
acids in a solution that contains hydrogen ions-H+
bases is a substance that neutralises an acid. bases are normal solids.(metal oxides and metal hydroxides.
a base that dissolves in water is an alkali.
all alkalis in solution in water contin hydroxide ions-OH-
NEUTRALISATION= ACID+ BASE= SALT+WATER
IONIC EQUATION FOR NEUTRALISATION= H+ + OH-= H20
Potassium carbonate + hydrochloric acid → potassium chloride + water + carbon dioxide
H2SO4 + 2KOH → K2SO4 + 2H2O- sulfuric acid + potassium hydroxide → potassium sulfate + water
2HNO3 + CaCO3 → Ca(NO3)2 + H2O + CO2 nitric acid + calcium carbonate → calcium nitrate + water + carbon dioxide
HCl + NH4OH → NH4Cl + H2O hydrochloric acid + ammonium hydroxide → ammonium chloride + water