A base is a compound that neutralises acids. The reaction is neutralisation.
After neutralisation no acid is left, giving it a pH of 7.
All acids and bases react to create the same products:
Acid + base -> salt + water
If you neutralise an acid using a carbonate, carbon dioxide is produced.
Acid + carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide
Bases are compounds of metal oxides (calcium oxide), hydroxides (potassium hydroxide) or carbonates (sodium carbonate).
Not all bases dissolve and make a solution. Soluble bases are alkalis.
Hydrochloric acid is naturally made in the stomach. It kills bacteria and for activating enzymes for digestion.
Too much stomach acids causes indigestion. Antacids relieve this by neutralising the acid.
- You find out how acidic something is by measuring the pH. Acid is <7. Alkaline >7.
- If an acid is neutralises, the pH rises to 7.
- Titration is slowly adding alkali to acid until exactly the right amount neutralises it.
- When the acid has been neutralised, only salt and water remain.
Acids and their Salts
The name of the salt depends on the name of the metal in the base 'calcium hydroxide'.
The 2nd word in the name comes from the acid.
Hydrochloric acid forms salts that ends in 'chloride'. Sulfuric acid forms '-sulfates' and nitric acid forms '-nitrates'.
Acid: Hydrochloric acid Base: Sodium hydroxide Salt: Sodium chloride