The foreighn policy of James(J)
- Parliament called to discuss outbreak of war in palatinate and Englands part in it - James didnt want to go to war-he thought that Fredrik was foolish for exepting the crown of Bohemia-He did however believe it was Freds herditary land and he is intitled to it. James however didnt want to go to war and attempted to win over the Spanish with his marrige proposel-this was not the case and was blamed for his lack of decisive action.
- After summer recess, despite sending some aid to fred, parliemnt aggreived that James was still seeking to secure a spanish match and wanted Charles to mary a proterstant.
- James forbid parliment the right to dicuss FP (perogative) in line with Liz the 1s precedent
- P resonded with 'Commons proterstation'-defeded their free speech + priveledge-James outraged he ripped up the doc and disolved parl
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The foreighn policy of James 4th parl(J)
- Buck and Charles go to Madrid to attempt to get a marrige-Spanish end negotiation as C and B were rude and obnosous-come home humiliated and bent on war-alied with puritans and the infulential earl of pembroke
- james wants milirtary action contained to the regaining of the palatinate for political (not religious) reasons and wands a land war not a sea one. Supported by cranfield for financiel reasons. james doesnt wanrt war with spain (hapsbergs)
- James says he will consult with P before making any FP decisions but he directs the army.
- By the close of parliment, subsides had been passed for the use in war but with no promise to which form of military intervention it would take.
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FP of charles up to 1629(C)
- planned to go to war with spain-he wanted £1 mill from P but he refused to xplain his position or specific subsidy and was only granted 2 subsidies came to £140,000 and tonnagew + poundage for only a year asd they didnt trust charles-directed at Bucks attack on him as lord high admdmiral (rubish)
- Cadiz-Troops were shipped by force to Holland- werent trained and limited equipment-4,000 of the 6,000 troops died on route-Falied to take the spanish port of Cadiz instead more soldiers lost in cadiz to local wine and lack of food than gunfire.-the faliure to capture the spanish gold now meant that C had to call another parliment
- La Rochelle- a result of Cs marrige he helped crush the hugs in france- wanted to help C france kill proterstants which reinforced cath suspicions-Was a military faliure the ladders were two short and couldnt lay seige-1/3 of soldiers died-Charles had spent all his £ on the war and had tocall another P
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The career and influence on Bukingham(J+C)
- he became Earl of Buckingham and in 1619, he was made a Marquess.
- The manner in which B cliamed up the sociel order created opposition and the public displays of affection was believed to be unacceptable.
- Bukcingham managed to get Earl of suffok (leader of howards) embezzeled which ended their pollitical power
- He also got Francis Bacon appointed as countries senior law officer and lord chancoler- Bacon had B to thank which suited him
- Buck mainpulated the king and used his patronage to get his own men and family into positions of responsiblility and this got him alot of support from them.
- He was involved in decision making which alienated Parl. Parl however fort back impeaching to of the men buck got into power
- He was involved in cs marrige negotiations (again opposed by parl)
- His FP was also awful and highly crtitisied -cadiz was a faliure
- Edward Coke attempted to get him impeached but parliment was involved
- Attack on La rocheele another faliure- In 1628 they sent a remonstrance critising him further Charles disolved parl.-much to the pleasing of the public B was killed by Felton
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Religious issues James(J)
- Puritan influence in Parliment increasingly critical of growing Cath influence at court and high court-Barristor Edward Floyd was fined and sentenced to 6 hours in the stocks for being sarcastic about Elector palatinate.
- Puritans led by John Preston unites with Buckingham and Charles to push for war they called for James to break with Spain once and for all.
- James banned calvinist preaching on pre destination and reprobation-becaus preachers were using it to critisise his FP-may also be because he was becoming more arminian.
- He allowed Montagu to publish his Armenian book.
Scotland and Irland
- Religious difference meant political differences-hence the desire for unity
- in irland their was Cath, Calvinist church of irland and small group of prespe
- in scot he was determined to get bishops into the kirk- kirk unable to resist royal demands- Bishops inforced in 1618 and attempted top introduce some liturgical reforms with the 'articles of perth but realised he had gone to far so didnt inforce them- sensitivity was not shared by Charles
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Rise of armininiamism for Charles(C)
- parliment attacked charles on his support for the Arm leric Richard montergu-his book 'an old gagg for a new goose' who was anti calvanist-he then provocativley appointed him as royal chaplain. This was a clear anti-calvanist move and he seemed unaware of the religious consiqences
- After parliament started criticising Buck and montergue he disolved parliment
- York House Conference-At the request of Puritan Earl of Warick and to avoid the further parlimentry religious critisim and issues.-He held the meeting in his london house-the focus was on the writings of montergu-Althought he aim was to stop charles anti-calvanism in court Buckingham supported the arminianism even though he was linked with warick-Charles didnt even sdhow up which supported that he didnt like to compromise or negotiate.
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James crown and palriment(J)
- Only granted James £140,000 pounds for war with palatinate and turned to demestic greivences on Monopolies-Crown and parl in harmony-just lords who were against it as would affect them-lead to the impeachment of Bacon from coke for giving out Monop-james accepted this to save Buck
- He invited them to dicuss FP-but ended messily when parliment infringed his perogative-parliment created protestation to which james rips out the page and disolves parliment
- In 1624 they were again invited to dicuss FP- however this was were C and Buck were bent on war-they too were kean but not financiely-parliment granted a subsiidy but under condition that it was regulated by parlimentary officals.-James could be bothered with war at the end of his rein
- 1624-monopolies act;grants of monoply fobiden to inerviduals-first lkimitation of crown perogative by act of parliment.
- Relgious issues arose when Charles negotiated with the spanish on cocesions with the marrige proposa(even though he promesed not to)-recusantcy laws were susepended and henruiette was aloud to remain catholic and worship. issues however were with charles not james
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Charles parl and crown relationship 25-6 (C)
- his personality caused issues-shy-non flexible-sensitive to critism-bad pollitical judgement
- charles wanted war with S-parl showd distrust in him +buck-only granted £120,000 and a year of T+P- ignored T+P and continued to collect-absolute
- Buckingham was a source of tension-to much power-not good at job- Ch :(
- Arminimism-Parl protestant belived C to be trying push towards Cath church-Montergu-Laud-York house-opening ceromony ect
- Foreign policy-showed Buck to ****-charles shifter fault to parl for bad funding-had to call parl cos didnt get span gold-Cs got rid of opposition like wentworth and coke by making them sherifs-couldnt stand for election. opposition to buck were arrested or dismissed.
- Charles felt parliment had already caused him to lose war-now they tried to impeach buckingham-coke and bristol-Brist said C bribed courtiers in spain offering conccesion to spanish caths-charged Brist with treason-disolved
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Charles parl and crown relationship 28-9
- FL AND 5NC-Before parliment had been called he needed money so called forced loan-unable to refuse people had to give Charles the money-this caused opp-he dismissed judes who opposed it as well as james arch bishop Abbott who refused to licence Sibthorpes sermon supporting the FL saying it was gods will to give chales munz.-led to the 5 nights case were 5 resitoors said he was illegal to improson them wthout proper cause-taken to court- C won-but led to later grievences from parliment in 3 resolutions-became clear Cs had falsified documents in case-charles could arrest anyone he liked
- 3 resolutions-charles seemed willing to compromise-coke made S ecretary of state-Parl agreed to give charles 5 subsides if their greivences were adressed-1,illegality of extra parlimentary taxes i.e. T+P-2.billeting troops-public had to house billeting troops 3.-martiel lawe-stop theese troops from becoming out of control,miliatry law overuled all other rule which meant they were above the law and out of control
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Charles parl and crown relationship 28-9 2
- some wanted bill of rights but P setteled with petition of rights-was a responce to fears that C couldnt be trused to rule under unwritten constitution-in the pet-1.P had to consent to taxation-2 peeps could only be imprisioned if just causewas shown3-the imopition of martiel law on poulation was illegal4.imposition of biliting was illegal.-charles read the petition under further threat towards buck and he also need £-he finally agreed to it but damage was already done.
- They went further in their remonstances critising buckinghams foreign policy fail and charles on the illegal collection of T+P.
- The death of Buck although caused rejocing led to a turning point for charles-he balmed parliment for his death as their botrayal of buckingham-charles became even more removed and this caused more issues
- Trust issues continued with C growing arminianism and it arose that he was stoping the printing of the petition of rights
- the three resolutions led to the arrest of Elliot,Holes and calantine who died int he tower and whos bodies werent relased-Martys-opp to charles-badie
sumary-it was this mistrust and conflict which was a long term issue in CW
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