1-Natural Hazards, 2- Tectonic Hazards, 3- Weather hazards 4-Cliamte change 5- Ecosystems, 6- Tropical rain forests 8- cold enviroments


1-Natural Hazards

Natural hazard: A naturally occuring event which has an impact on people

Hazard risk: the chance of being affecdted by a natural event eg. frequency, wealth


  • Tectonic - volcano
  • Atmospheric- hurricane
  • Geomorphological- Landlide
  • Biological- 
  • Poverty- Can force people to live in these areas
  • Urbanism- populated cities at risk
  • Building on flood planes- rivers silt is good to build on
  • climate change- warmer world so more energy and risk of intense storms ect.
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2-Tectonic Hazards: Distribution

  • Mainly occur at tectonic plate margins where plates are contantly moving due to convection currents from the earths core

Two types of earths crust: 

Oceanic- Dense and thin crust

Contiental- Less dense but thick

Image result for Tectonic plate (http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/tectonic.gif)

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2-Tectonic Hazards: Constructive Plate

  • Two plates move apart
  • Magma rises into the gap between them
  • A volcano occurs as the magma breaks through the crust
  • As the magma dries, it contsructs new land

Image result for constructive plate margin (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/99674b272695d3a9b9afa83b291272b14ae61d4e.png)

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2-Tectonic Hazards: Destructive Plate

  • Two plates move towards each other
  • Heavier, denser oceanic crust slides under the lighter, less dense continental crust
  • The land is destroyed
  • Friction between the pates builds up and causes an earthquake
  • Magma rises and causes a composite volcano

Collision: When the plates meet and form a fold mountain

    (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/eee7117dc74a7dc9efbd2dd5eb9fa09e8bbb751a.png)                          Image result for collision plate margin

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2-Tectonic Hazards: Conservative Plate

  • Plates rub next to each other
  • Causes a build up of pressure and friction on the outcrop of each plate and they get stuck on each other
  • Eventually they move and cause an earthquake  eg. San Andreas
  • No volcano as there is no land destroyed or magma present
  • the plates can move in the opposite or the same direction

                              Image result for conservative plate boundary (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/859fd5a69269cc266396319515a05c9aacf9f41e.png)

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2-Tectonic Hazards:Reducing the risk


Scientist are constantly monitering active volcanoes through: Remote sensing using satelites, Seismicity graphs of the earthqaukes, Geophysical measurements which detect changes of magma


Volcanoes are based on monitering and hotspot plate margin areas are identified through history


Earth embankements can be used to divert lava from property. Earthquake resistant building can be made with shock absorbers in the floor and are built with strong materials.


Maps have been produced to show the high risk areas to warn people

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3- Weather Hazards- Global atmospheric circulation

The movement of air around the earth to balance the temperature 

  • Air sinks and forms areas of high pressure
  • Air rises and forma areas of low pressure
  • Winds move from areas of high pressure to low pressure
  • Surface winds transport heat from one place to another
  • Seasonal changes affect this pattern

Related image        Related image

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3- Weather Hazards- How Tropical storms form

A tropical storm is a fast spinning storm with low pressure in the centre and strong winds which produce a spiral, thunderstorms and heavy rain

What a hurricane needs:

  • Warm ocean water causing evaportaion and clouds
  • Winds coming together forcing air up
  • Wind flowing above storm
  • Light winds outside to steer it

    Image result for how a tropical storm is formed (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/bf899495261cc15db80e1508ca6ae20309bace26.png)                                                                                 

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3- Weather Hazards- How Climate Change affects tro


  • More moist air means storms are occuring more comonly
  • Sea surface temperature has increased


  • Thunder storms makes it warmer for tropical storms
  • Scientist predict that storms wil decrease but the intensity will increase
  • Risen sea level temperature make storms more common


  • Moister air makes the storms more intense
  • Stuck jet streams make storms bigger
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3- Weather Hazards- Reducing the impacts

Monitering and Predicting:

  • Windspeeds and and wind direction monitered
  • temperature of sea level monitered
  • We can then predict when it will occur


  • Have flood supplies eg, first aid
  • Evacute areas and have them get flood insurance
  • Everyone knows what to do


  • Stay inside safe buidings and low down, protect head
  • buid houses on stilts and get flood insurance
  • protects against death and injury
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3- Weather Hazards- In the UK

Weather: Day to day conditions of the atmosphere

Climate: Average weather condition over a period of time

Uk extreme weather experiences:

Flooding, Heatwaves, Drought, Winds, Thunder stroms, Snow, Lighteneing, Fog, Ice

Why we experience them:

  • Polar maritime: Cold, rain, moist, clouds
  • Arctic maritime: Wet, cold, snow, 
  • Tropical maritime: Warm, hot, dry, rain, clouds

Related image

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4- Climate change- Recent evidence

Rising sea level:

Global sea level has risen between 10 and 20 cm in the past 100 years. When the temperatures rise and freshwater ice melts, more water flows into the sea from the glaciers and ice caps. When the ocean warms up, it expands in volume- thermaexpansion

Seasonal changes:

Natural seasonal activities are advancing eg a study of birds nesting showed that more species of birds are neting on average 9 days earier than 20 years ago

Shrinking glaciers and melting ice caps:

Glaciers and ice caps over the world are shrinking and its estimated that some will completely disapear by 2035. Arctic sea ice has thinned by 65% since 1975

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4- Climate change- Natural causes

Volcanic activity:

  • Volcanoes blast out ash which block the sun reducing the temperature on earth
  • Sulphur dioxide from volcanoes reflects the sunlight radiation redcuing sun on earth

Milankovitch cycles:


Paths of the earth orbitting the sun- can be closer or further away- hotter or colder


The earths natural wobble making certain regions days shorter or longer

Axial tilt:

The earth is moving between two extremeties: 21.5-24.5 degrees- Making earth warmer or colder as the sun is at diffrent distances

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4- Climate change- Human causes

Greenhouse effect:

  • electromagnetic radiation , from the sun, passes through atmosphere
  • earth absorbs radiation and warms up
  • Some infrared radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases trapped in atmosphere and warms up earth

Fossil fuels:

They produce co2- greenhouse gas: coal, oil, gas


  • Cows digestion produces methane (a greenhouse gas) and demands rising so more cows
  • Rice paddy feilds invloves flooding feilds and decaying oganic matter makes methane


Trees are carbon sinks so cutting them down makes more co2 left in the atmosphere

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4- Climate change- Mitigation

Mitigating - reducing the severity

Carbon capture and storage:

  • technology captures co2 from power station and is pumped to reservoirs 
  • eg, co2 Pipeline in norway

Alternating energy sources:

  • So we cut down on fossil fuels and they dont produce co2 emissions
  • eg. nuclear power station in summerset


  • Planting more trees to capture more co2 from enviroment during photosynthesis
  • eg. amazon rainforest Brazil

International agreements:

  • Countries agreeing to reduce co2 emissions eg. free public tansport in Paris
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4- Climate change- Adaption

Changes in buildings:

  • Bedzed is an eco community where the houses do not give off any carbon emissions
  • eg, they use rain water to flush tiolets, thick walls for insulation

Changes in agricultural systems:

  • New technology is being used to make extreme weather resistant crops eg, Gambia

Managing water supplies:

  • Water saving tips for in the home eg, hippo bricks, turn off taps, take showers
  • The himalayas melt and use glaciers as water in spring
  • Thames distilation plant turns sea water into fresh water

Coping with rising sea level:

  • Flood barriers eg, thames barrier shuts 5 times a year
  • Bangladesh can't afford barriers so build houses on stilts instead or embankements
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5- Ecosystems- Introduction

An ecosystems is a community of plants and animals which interact with each other and their physical enviroment

Biotic- Living features of an ecosystem eg. the plants/fish

Abiotic- Non living features of an ecosystem eg. the climate

Producer: Converts energy from the enviroment (sun) into sugars (glucose) eg. photosynthesis in plants

Consumer: Gets their energy from the producers

Decomposers: Breaks down animal and plant material into nutrients in the soil

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5- Ecosystems- Food chains

A food chain is a diagram which shows the direct links between producers and consumers

A food web shows all the connections in a more complex way

Image result for food chain bbc bitesize (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/cd86efed554fb97ed5efdb995521d2ce0b6d3129.gif)           Image result for food web bbc bitesize (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/6c037d9998a5ff901826d3f0ff7e56eaaacf818a.gif)

5. Quaternary consumer eg. eagle

4. Tertairy consumer eg. snake

3. Secondary consumer eg. mouse

2. Primary consumer eg. insect

1. Primary producer eg. plant

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5- Ecosystems- Fresh water pond

Pond bottom:

  • Little light or oxygen, decomposers live here eg, water worms                                           

Mid water:

  • Fish are the main preditors here and breathe through gills

Pond surface:

  • Lots of light and oxygen here and some animals here breathe through lungs     

Above pond:

  • Mainly birds live here and get their food from the pond surface

Pond margin:

  • Lots of light, oxygen and shelter here, plants are eaten by small animals


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5- Ecosystems- What causes change

Flooding is a physical problem and destroys habitats and affects the food chain

Draining ponds for farming affects fish and aquatic life and detroys habitats

Droughts dries up the siol and nutrients so primary consumers struggle to live

Pollution in ponds breaks down algae/producers and affects other species

Fertilizers can increase the nitrate which increases the growth of produers so oxygen levels decrease and fish may die - euthrophication

Climate change cannot provide suitable for conditions for producers growth so they struggle to grow and affects the rest of the food chain

Fires can burn and destroy small species and habitats which affects the rest of the food chain

Fish stocking can wipe out entire fish species and affects rest of food chain

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5- Ecosystems- Nutrients cycling

When plants or animals die, decomposers recycle them into nutrients for other plants and animals. The decomposeres do not eat the waste but digest them by releasing enzymes which break them down and passes the nutirents into the soil. The plants them absorb the nutrientts and the primary consumer gets it. 

Image result for nutrients cycle bbc bitesize

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5- Ecosystems- Global Biomes

Deciduos- medium temperature- North of the equator

Temperate grassland- hot summer/cold winter- North/South of equator

Coniferous forest- short summer- North of equator

Tundra- Frozen- Arctic

Tropicala rainforests-Hot/wet- South of equator

Savannah Grassland-grassy-South of equator

Mediterranien- hot/dry- Middle North of equator

Desert-Hot- On equator

                                                                                                              Image result for biomes bbc bitesize

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6- Tropical Rainforests- Characteristics

Emergent Layer: Only a few trees and leaves are waxy to prevent drying eg. a monkey woud live here

Canopy: The trees knit together and form a dense canopy blocking out the sun and intercepting the rainfall eg. birds, monkeys

Understory: Low light, plants adapt to grow here- dense vegetation along the rivers eg. bird

Shrub layer: Only little light so plants grow slowly, covered in fall leaves and rotting brances- when trees fall, light gets in and encourages younger plants to grow eg. frogs, snake

Soil layer: Thin and poor and is only a shallow layer, infertile but is nutrients rich eg. insect

Image result for tropical rainforest layers bbc bitesize

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6- Tropical Rain-forests- Adaptations


Gorillas- They have fur to keep them warm and protects against insects

Toucans- Have long beeks to reach fruit off trees and cut fruit off trees

Sloths- Hangs from trees and moves slowly to stay camouflaged 


Bark- Thin and smooth so water can flow off it easily

Leaves drip tip- Allows rain to drink off them, also waxy to encourage this

Buttresses- Ridges to support base of tree and large surface area for photosynthesis

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6- Tropical Rain-forests- Values


Home to over 50% of the worlds plants and animals species- important habitat


28% of the worlds oxygen is produced in rainforests and also acts as carbon sinks


Supplies are gathered from there- wood/paper, fruit and many medicines


Home for many indigenous people- lots of tribal communities

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6- Tropical Rain-forests- Sustainable Management

Selective logging

Clear felling is the most harmful method of deforestation. Selective logging is planning which trees are to be cut down by analysing their age, then, more trees are planted.

Conservation and education

Can be protected in nature reserve areas and can be used for education. Large companies financially support them in exchange for scientific research.


Introducing tourism to the forests to raise money to protect them-susatinable

International agreements

Countries making plans and agreements to protect the eg. reducing demands of wood ect

Debt reduction

Countries borrow money and pay it back to the rainforest for afforestation programmes

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7- Cold environments- Characteristics


  • Winters fall below 50 degrees celsius
  • Soil is permanently frozen
  • Some plants like moss grow on fringes on the ice
  • Polar bears have adapted to have thick fur to retain heat, black nose and feet pads to absorb sunshine


  • Less cold winters and have high snow fall and short warm summers
  • Soil is permafrost but top layer melts in summer, but mostly infertile
  • Low plant growth but some small bushes in warmer areas
  • Several animals can live here due to more food and less extreme climate eg. actic fox
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7- Cold environments- Under threat

These enviroments have very fragile ecosystems which can be easily disturbed by humans and can take a very long time to recover

  • touism
  • coal mining
  • fishing
  • Energy development

Why it needs to be protected:

  • Indigenous people live in peacfull, undistubed enviroments
  • Home to many species of animals eg. penguins, polar bears, fish
  • Vital for climate chane research as its an undeveloped, unpolluted area
  • Beauty has potential for a tourism industry
  • Povides small fishing industries
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7- Cold environments- Management

Technology- The trans alaskan pipeline was made to transport oil across the arctic ocean

Goverment action-Ensures that companies delaing with oil must protect the natural enviroment and respect indienous people. Administrations protect marine enviroments from industrial fishing.

International agreements- Antarctic treaty is signed by many countries with the claims to protect th aera by controlling tourism and keeping it undisturbed and doing climate change research

Conservation groups- World Wildlife Fund is a conservation group to protect the enviroment and works with the communities to manage ecosystmes, supports science research and works with oil companies to keep them minimal. 

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-Glacial Landscapes

A glacier is a slow moving river of ice

  • Since the last ice age the climate has become warmer so most glaciers melted
  • Glaciers helped to create countryside today
  • During the past ice age, the ice advanced and retreated
  • Northern and eastern parts of the british isles were covered in ice

Image result for map of uk during last ice age (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/iceAge/images/Fig2_British_Isles_2.jpg)

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-Glaciation processes: EROSION



  • Melt water from a glacier freezes to the base of rock
  • When the ice advances downhill (moves) rock is plucked from the back wall
  • This leaves behind a jaggered rocky surface


  • When rock freezes to the base and back of a glacier
  • When the glacier moves it scraped the rock like sandpaper
  • These large scrathes are called striations
  • this process creates u shaped valleys and leaves shiny rock surfaces
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-Glaciation processes: WEATHERING



  • Melt water or rain water gets into cracks in the bed rock
  • At night the water freezes and expands
  • This causes the rock crack to increase and eventually breaks the rock

Related image (http://www.bbc.co.uk/staticarchive/8182e570fd20c98a498d3ccda8704657d1869761.png)Related image (http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks3/geography/images/138e_bitesize_ks3_geography_glaciation_freezethaw_516.png)

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Factors affecting glacial abrasion

Velocity- The faster the glacier moves, the more friction between the rocks and glacier so more abrasion occurs

Ice thickness- The heavier the glacier, the more pressure and force on the rocks so more abrasion occurs

Basal debris- The more material there is frozen to the glacier, the more friction between the rocks so more arasion will occur

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-Glaciation processes: MOVEMENT


Basal slip:

  • In warmer areas eg the Alps, lots of melt water is produced
  • This lubricates the glacier so it can slides down hills, easier

Rotational slip:

  • In hollows on valley sides, glaciers can get stuck
  • so to get out, they twist and rotate to get out of the hollow
  • this erodes the hollow further

Internal deformation:

  • In winter, the glaciers freeze to rock surfaces
  • The weight of the ice causes individula ice crystal to form to stretch the glacier further down the mountain
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-Glaciation processes: TRANSPORTATION


  • Sediment transported by a glacier is called morraine
  • It can be transported on or below the ice
  • As a glacier moves forward, it pushes the sediment in front of it
  • This is called bulldozing

Image result for glacial bulldozing (http://www.landforms.eu/Caithness/images/Hwb0530.GIF)

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-Glaciation processes: DEPOSITION


  • Most depositioning occurs when ice melts
  • Most ice melts at the snout of the glacier
  • This is where most of the material from the ice is depositied 

Image result for glacial deposition

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-Erosional land forms: U SHAPE VALLEY



  • Glacier moves down the valley and plucks rocks with it
  • the rocks erode, deepen and widen the valley
  • This creates a U-shape


  • Plucking
  • Abrasion

Image result for U shaped valley bbc bitesize

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-Erosional land forms: CORRIE



  • Snow compresses and forms a glacier
  • This moves and hollows out the valley
  • It then melts to produce a tarn (lake)


  • Plucking                     
  • Abrasion
  • Freeze thaw

Related image

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-Erosional land forms: ARETE



  • When glaciers on the sides of a ridge, erode and grind down the valley
  • Forms a steepsided ridge like a knife edge


  • Plucking
  • Abrasion

Related image

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-Erosional land forms: PYRAMIDAL PEAK



  • When 3 or more corries cut backwards into the same mountain
  • They form a sharp peak at the top of the mountain


  • abrasion
  • Plucking

Image result for pyramidal peak bbc bitesize

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-Erosional land forms: TRUNCATED SPUR



  • Areas of land which are round at the top and steep at the bottom
  • Formed when glaceirs move through the valley and cut off spurs


  • Abrasion
  • Plucking

Image result for truncated spur bbc bitesize

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-Erosional land forms: HANGING VALLEY



  • smaller sided valley left hanging above the main Ushape valley
  • This contains less ice than main glacial valley so not deeply eroded


  • Bulldozing

Image result for hanging valley bbc bitesize

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-Erosional land forms: RIBBON LAKE



  • Large norrow lake in a U shaped valley
  • Forms in a hollow when a glacier has deeply eroded the less risistant rock and fills up with a valley


  • Abrasion

Image result for ribbon lake bbc bitesize

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-Depositional landforms: MORAINE

A moraine is a type of landforma created when a glacier deposits its material and is made up of unsorted angular rocks, there are 4 types:

LATERAL: Material which has fallen from the sides of a valleyand builds up small ridges at the sides

MEDIAL: When two glaciers joint together, the sedimanet runs down the middle of the valley


Material left behind from a galcier and forms uneven hilly ground

TERMINAL: Material which piles up at the snout of the glacier and forms high ridges

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-Depositional landforms: Diagrams of moraine

Image result for types of moraine bbc bitesize

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-Depositional landforms: DRUMLINS


  • Formed of moraine
  • They are elongated features
  • They have blunt faces pointing up the valley
  • They have pointed faces pointing down the valley
  • The moraine moulds itslef around obsticles it faces

Related image (http://image1.slideserve.com/1961298/drumlin-formation-n.jpg)

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-Depositional landforms: ERRATICS


  • These are random rocks which are diffrent to all of the rocks around them
  • They have been transported and deposited by a glacier

Related image

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This is a good info card. Natural hazards are great to be aware of because you never know when one might happen. But I would even add that something like mould growing in your attic can be a "natural hazard" because it is hazardous and natural. For such a natural hazard as mould growth in your home its best to have a local mould remediation company nearby to deal with it, unlike an earthquake where you rely on local emergency responders. I have a phone number for a local company on my fridge, these guys at https://speedymouldremoval.ca/, but I hope you never have to deal with this hazard, although it's not as extreme as many on this list. Stay safe out there!

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