First 303 words of the document:
Jessica Koko Madtshirts
Melody Improvised Melodies
Call and Response
There are 3 main strands:
1. The Balafon ostinati (polyphonic texture)
2. The drum ostinati (one-bar pattern)
3. The vocal line (pentatonic call and response structure)
Accompaniment Ostinato on drums that only stops during the Balafons break in the
main section (half way through) and at the end.
Dynamics No notated dynamics, but generally when texture increases, so do the
dynamics and vice versa.
Dynamics largely unvaried
Texture Starts off monophonic but ends up Polyphonic
Heterophony (all the parts play different versions of the same tune at
the same time)
Structure Basic Structure:
Intro Main Section Coda
Intro chorus A1 Balafons solo chorus A2 Balafons solo
Vocal solo Balafons solo chorus B1 Balafons solo chorus B2
Balafons solo Chorus A3 Balafon solo coda
Harmony Balafons provide harmonies with each other (Balafon 2 enters in the
main section plays in octaves.
No real harmony generally
Balafons play short patterns from high to low emphasising G and D
Instruments Vocals, Balafon, flute, djembe, tam-tam, dundun, maracas, talking
Syncopated (mainly in the vocals and Balafon sections)
Rhythmic cycles of different lengths
Tonality Gb major
Hexatonic (based on a size-note scale)
Speed The tempo is unvaried
4/4 but does change to 6/4 and 3/4
Performed by Koko and is part of the genre of African Instrumental and Vocal Music, located from
West African, Burkina Faso.
Learnt through oral tradition.
There is a master drummer who leads the other drummers and will start the call for the call and