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Forces
Displacement, velocity and acceleration
Displacement is the straight line distance between two points. It is usually shorter than the distance
but it can be the same as the distance.
Velocity is the change of displacement.
V elocity = Displacement (m)
Time (s)
(m/s)
It is a speed in a specific direction.
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity.
Acceleration = Change inTime
velocity (m/s)
(s)
(m/s2)
Acceleration can happen in 3 ways:
1. Increase speed
2. Decrease speed
3.…read more

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Distance - time graphs and velocity - time graphs
Distance - time graphs
Stationary
Constant velocity
Constant acceleration
Constant deceleration…read more

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Velocity - time graphs
Constant velocity
Constant acceleration
Constant zoom (increasing acceleration)
The gradient of a v - t graph is the acceleration
The area under a v - t graph is the distance travelled…read more

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Resultant force
A resulting force is a force that acts when there is a force acting on an object.
There must always be at least 2 forces acting on an object.
An object with zero resultant force will stay stationary or move at a constant speed.
An object with a resultant force will move towards the direction of the resultant force.
An object with a resultant force will accelerate.…read more

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Mass and weight
Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in a object. Measured in Kg
Weight is the force of gravity on an object (measured in newtons)
Mass is the same everywhere in the universe, but weight changes with the local strength of gravity
e.g. the moons gravity is 1/6 of the gravity on earth.…read more

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Newton's laws
First law
Every object in steady motion tends to remain in that state unless an external force is
applied to it.
e.g. When a train or bus is moving at a constant velocity, then the forces on it must all be balanced.
To keep going at a steady speed there must be zero resultant force.
Second law
The relationship between an object's mass (m), its acceleration (a), and the applied force (F)
can be represented in the equation F = ma.…read more

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Braking
The greater the velocity, the greater the deceleration need to stop a car in a certain distance.
The greater the mass, the greater the breaking force needed for a given deceleration.
Factors affecting stopping distances
1. Tiredness, alcohol and drugs: they all increase the reaction times
2. The faster a vehicle is traveling the further it travels before it stops
3. In adverse road conditions: wet or icy roads make drives brake with less force to avoid
skidding
4.…read more

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Energy
Kinetic energy
Kinetic energy is movement.…read more

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Momentum
The faster a body is moving the more kinetic energy it has.
It also has momentum
M omentum = mass ×V elocity
(kilogram m/s) (kg) (m/s)
Momentum has both magnitude and direction
When two objects collide, the momentum of each object changes.
For two objects of the same mass colliding , the velocity of the objects is halved by the impact. The
combined mass after the collision is twice the moving mass before the collision.…read more

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