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Physics
Notes

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Forces
Displacement, velocity and acceleration

Displacement is the straight line distance between two points. It is usually shorter than the distance
but it can be the same as the distance.

Velocity is the change of displacement.

V elocity = Displacement (m)
Time (s)


(m/s)

It is a speed in a…

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Distance - time graphs and velocity - time graphs

Distance - time graphs

Stationary






Constant velocity






Constant acceleration






Constant deceleration





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Velocity - time graphs

Constant velocity






Constant acceleration






Constant zoom (increasing acceleration)






The gradient of a v - t graph is the acceleration

The area under a v - t graph is the distance travelled

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Resultant force

A resulting force is a force that acts when there is a force acting on an object.
There must always be at least 2 forces acting on an object.

An object with zero resultant force will stay stationary or move at a constant speed.

An object with a…

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Mass and weight

Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in a object. Measured in Kg

Weight is the force of gravity on an object (measured in newtons)

Mass is the same everywhere in the universe, but weight changes with the local strength of gravity

e.g. the moons…

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Newton's laws

First law

Every object in steady motion tends to remain in that state unless an external force is
applied to it.

e.g. When a train or bus is moving at a constant velocity, then the forces on it must all be balanced.
To keep going at a steady…

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Braking

The greater the velocity, the greater the deceleration need to stop a car in a certain distance.
The greater the mass, the greater the breaking force needed for a given deceleration.






Factors affecting stopping distances
1. Tiredness, alcohol and drugs: they all increase the reaction times
2. The faster…

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Energy
Kinetic energy

Kinetic energy is movement.

K inetic energy = 1
2 ×Mass ×Speed


(joules) (Kg) (m/s2)

Speed can be calculated from this equation:

2
Ek = 1
2×M ×V

2Ek = M × V 2


2Ek
M = V 2



V =
2Ek
M

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Momentum

The faster a body is moving the more kinetic energy it has.
It also has momentum

M omentum = mass ×V elocity

(kilogram m/s) (kg) (m/s)

Momentum has both magnitude and direction

When two objects collide, the momentum of each object changes.

For two objects of the same mass…

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