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Kinetic theory

The Kinetic theory describes the rate of movement in particles.
Substances can exist in three states of matter ­ Solid, Liquid and Gas ­ in each state the arrangement of particles is different.

SOLIDS: strong forces of attraction hold particles a fixed, regular arrangement giving
solid a definite…

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2) Particles near the heat source get more energy and start moving faster, meaning that there's more distance between them i.e. the
water expands and becomes less dense. (Note that if there is water below the heat source, it will get hardly any heat by conduction)
3) The reduction in…

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There are many things that you can do to a
building to reduce the amount of heat that
escapes. Some are more efficient and some are
more cost effective.

Cost Effective are the methods which are the
cheapest; they have the shortest payback time
and cover the amount you pay…

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8) CHEMICAL ENERGY ­ possessed by batteries and food etc.
9) POTENTIAL ­ GRAVITATIONAL POTENTIAL ­ anything above the ground (e.g. book sitting on shelf) ­ ELASCTIC
POTENTIAL ­ stretched elastic band and springs have it

Potential and Chemical energy can be stored because it is energy that isn't obviously…

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Costing Electricity
Kilowatt-hours (kWh) are the units of electricity. The amount of energy transferred by an appliance depends on its power
(the rate it can transfer energy) and the amount of time that the appliance is switched on.

ENERGY (J) = POWER (kW) ÷ TIME (h)


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- We use electrical energy the most because it is easy to covert into other forms of
energy (e.g. light, heat and sound0
- It is non-polluting at the point of use


Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can reduce the impact…

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Because of the oil running out, many coal and oil-fires power stations are being replaced
by gas-fired stations ­ they're quick to set up and gas doesn't pollute quite as badly as
oil and coal. REMEBER THAT GAS IS NOT THE ONLYOPTION (see above)…

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"Waves transfer energy from one point to another without any matter (stuff)
Physically moving or being transferred between the two points"

Waves have:
AMPLITUDE: displacement from the rest position to the crest (central line to a peak)
WAVLENEGTH: length of a full cycle crest to crest (peak to peak)

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Displacement-distance graphs are different from displacement-time graphs ­ always check the x-axis

All waves can be reflected, refracted and diffracted.
1) Whenever a wave reaches an obstacle, the direction of the wave can be changed.
2) This can happen by reflection, refraction and diffraction
3) Note that the normal is…

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- The emergent ray is always parallel to the ...incident ray
- If the light wasn't travelling at an angle, the ...speed of the wave
would change and not the ...direction.

Electromagnetic Waves

EM waves with different wavelengths and frequencies have different properties. We group them into 7 different


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