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Megan Nolan

Triple Biology Revision Notes:
Microbes and Disease

Pathogens Causing Illness:

A pathogen is a disease causing organism, such as a virus, bacteria or fungi. They can cause illness in
three different ways:

Toxins- Harmful substances produced by pathogens that poison the body's tissue/ enzymes
Reproduction- Pathogens can `hijack'…

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Megan Nolan


Immunisation can prevent many diseases, but often has moral issues for the patient, such as the risk
of side effects. For example, new mothers must decide whether their baby has the MMR vaccination.
There are lots of possible side effects, such as autism, measles, mumps, rashes, fits…

Page 3

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Megan Nolan


Antibiotics, such as penicillin, are placed on an agar plate cover in bacteria.
If the antibiotic responds to the bacteria, a zone of inhibition will be clear
around the antibiotic. The zone of inhibition is where the bacteria have
been destroyed. The larger this zone, the more…




A clear set of well written notes on immunisation, defence against disease and antibiotics which wold be useful for any GCSE Biology or science student needing to study these topics. Team them up with a set of flashcards and a quiz or two for a complete set of resources.

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