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With reference to examples assess the degree to which the level of economic development
of a country affects planning and management in urban areas. (40)
All counties are at different levels of economic development and because of this it affects
the way in which a country plans and manages their urban areas. For example in MEDC's such
as the UK urban regeneration has been very prominent over recent years as the market for
housing has changed a lot. Islington is a borough in north London which is occupied by lots
of large Georgian and early Victorian housing which was originally occupied by wealthy
residents. However in the late 19th century the railways allowed easier access to the city so
wealthier residents left Islington and moved to the suburbs. During this time poorer
residents moved into the area and housing soon became run down. So during the 60's
middle class people began to buy properties in the area due to the large and attractive
cheaper housing within close proximity of the city centre and Angel underground station.
This increased the aesthetic appeal of Islington as houses improved and new business
opened, e.g. wine bars and restaurants, bringing money and jobs to the local economy.
In many LEDC's urbanisation is constantly happening in the search or a better life and a break
away from poverty. However, with thousands of people moving to the city governments
find it difficult to manage theses shanty towns, so migrants often build their own houses
unplanned and can be dangerous as cheep materials are used and construction is usually on
steep hills with the risk of landslides. This is very common in Sao Paulo, Brazil where there
are 13,000 homeless people are all searching for a better life, however, the huge shanty
town populations are putting huge pressures on roads and railways, increasing congestion
and air pollution as well as causing social problems with more wealthier locals and tourists. It
wasn't until 1995 until the government stepped in. They ran the Cinapura Housing Project,
this project aimed to replace favelas with apartment blocks, which locals could rent cheaply
but unfortunately the scheme was scrapped after 14,000 apartments as many people
couldn't afford to pay any rent at all.
Managing waste in urban areas is a often a difficult task for governments. In 2010 each
person in the UK produced 452kg of waste with a lot of this waste goes straight into landfill
sites and only 39% been recycled. The landfill site method is cheap in the short term but not
sustainable, they release huge amounts of carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere
which will lead to the damage of the ozone layer and result in climate change. However, it's
not all bad as government and businesses can invest in new technologies that allows the
gases to be captured and used (e.g. in biofuels). This has been done in Mumbai, India when a
landfill site in 2008 was closed and covered, methane produced by the site is now used to
generate electricity for the area. It is estimated that the scheme has reduced greenhouse
gas emissions by 2.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. This just goes to show that some
aspects of LEDC cities can be managed better than MEDC's.
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The redevelopment of city centres can help revive the CBD and help bring back shoppers.
Governments and local councils redevelop the city in a number of ways. They can:
Make shopping areas more attractive by creating pedestrian zones, adding benches
and planning trees.
Building new shopping malls (e.g. Liverpool One) or renovating old one (e.g. Arndale
centre in Manchester)
Improving public transport to decrease congestion e.g. park and ride
Installing CCTV and improving light conditions.…read more