Development & Globalization

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AQA A2 Geography

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Alex Buckingham 1
Development and Globalization
Plate Tectonics & Associated Hazards
Development is a term that can be used in many different contexts whether it be social, economical, political etc. However
generally development refers to an improvement in certain areas:
Economic
o An increase in the country's economy with a shift from secondary to tertiary industry which becomes less
dependent on FDI.
Demographic
o An increase in population and a more ageing population as standard of living increases. Birth rates and
death rates drop as life expectancy increases.
Social
o An increase in the range of services, increased land prices and a more multicultural society.
Political
o More democratic and more influence on the `global stage'.
Measuring Development
GDP
Gross Domestic Product ­ The total amount of goods produced by a country across the world
GNP
The total value of goods produced by one country in that country
HDI
Human Development Index ­ Measured using three statistics:
Life Expectancy
Literacy Rate
Standard of Living (measured in GDP per capita)
Development Continuum
Originally there were three groupings that made up the development continuum, they were:
First World (those developed countries that had a democratic government and a strong economy)
Second World (communist countries)
Third World (un developed countries)
However as time has gone on newer economies have started to develop caused by different development patterns and
speeds. There was a suggested North/South divide originating from the Brandt report in 1980 however this too requires some
artistic licence and is a very general way of dividing countries. There are more accurate ways of grouping countries as listed
below:
Developed (MDC's ­ the most well developed countries eg. UK)
Developing (Countries which are undergoing development ­ arguably they all are. Eg. Malaysia)
LDC's (Least Developed Countries ­ eg. Ethiopia)
NIC's (Newly Industrialised Countries ­ Have just finished development (10 years or so) Eg. China)
RIC's (Recently Industrialised Countries ­ Further behind than the NIC's eg. Dubai)
Centrally Planned Economies (The few remaining communist countries eg. North Korea)
Oil Rich Countries (Countries rich in oil eg. Saudi Arabia)
Globalisation
Globalisation: The increased inter-connection in the world's economic, cultural and political systems.
Positives Negatives
Allowed the movement of people more easily Uncontrolled migration
Increased foreign trade Inequality in wealth
Heavy environmental cost

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Alex Buckingham 2
Development and Globalization
More access to food, services, healthcare etc. all over the
world
Globalisation began in the 19th century as there was the beginning of movement of people and goods, there was an increase
in independence and therefore an increase in trade as well as the spread of industry ­ the beginning of Trans National
Corporations.
Globalisation continued in the 20th century and was shaped by a number of factors including:
I. Emergence of free markets (capitalist economy)
II.…read more

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Development and Globalization
Problems facing countries at low levels of economic development
The countries were outlined by the United Nations and of the top 50 33 are in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are defined by the
following:
Low incomes ($800 GDP per capita over 3 years)
Human resource weakness
Economic vulnerability shown by signs of dependency
Many of them suffer from widespread conflict, disease, urbanisation and fast urban growth (demographically speaking).…read more

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Development and Globalization
Transnational Corporations are ones that operate all over the world ­ usually having their research and headquarters in MDCs
and locating the manufacturing plants in LDCs. They can be split in to three different groups according to what industry they
are.
Primary
Natural resource extraction ­ Farming, Oil, Coal, Gas etc.
Secondary
Manufacturing ­ Nike, Reebok, Addidas, Head etc.
Tertiary
Services ­ Accounting, Advertising, Transport or Hotels etc.…read more

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Development and Globalization
Top down aid is usually the worst kind as it is more ;'throwing' money at a country and allowing them to get on with it. It
usually focuses on large scale, expensive projects which are unsuitable for the local community. It often doesn't go to the
people who need it most and only 25% of it is required to be a gift.
Bottom up schemes are much more helpful to the local community however still bring their problems.…read more

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Development and Globalization
At the Rio Earth Summit an environmental checklist was drawn up to show how the tourism industry could become more
sustainable, these included:
Waste minimisation, land use, re-use and recycling
Energy efficiency and management
Transport
Water (freshwater and waste)
Land use planning and management
Involvement of all stakeholders in the planning
Ecotourism is one of the fastest growing sectors within tourism and it aims to help conserve environmental aspects of tourism
for future generations.…read more

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Alex Buckingham 7
Development and Globalization
Problems:
Dramatic gap between rich and poor ­ one of the biggest in the world
Huge rural/urban migration has left thousands in the countryside isolated as well as a decrease in agriculture
meaning that poverty and famine has spread.…read more

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Development and Globalization
Increased employment in the USA as manufacturing Dumping in Mexico
grew Mexico is being exploited because o less rigid
Mexico got increased FDI as other countries wanted pollution laws which affects surrounding countries
to locate inside NAFTA.…read more

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Development and Globalization
This example illustrates the balance of pros and cons of top down aid. Furthermore the amount of NGO's that may try and help
could possibly undermine the policies that the government are pursuing and it is difficult to make them accountable as no one
elects NGO's.
Bangladesh ­ Bottom Up Aid
Bottom up development treats people as individuals with ideas and creativity.…read more

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