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Alex Buckingham 1
Development and Globalization


Plate Tectonics & Associated Hazards

Development is a term that can be used in many different contexts whether it be social, economical, political etc. However
generally development refers to an improvement in certain areas:

Economic
o An increase in the country's economy with a…

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Alex Buckingham 2
Development and Globalization


More access to food, services, healthcare etc. all over the
world

Globalisation began in the 19th century as there was the beginning of movement of people and goods, there was an increase
in independence and therefore an increase in trade as well as the…

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Alex Buckingham 3
Development and Globalization


Problems facing countries at low levels of economic development

The countries were outlined by the United Nations and of the top 50 33 are in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are defined by the
following:

Low incomes ($800 GDP per capita over 3 years)
Human resource…

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Alex Buckingham 4
Development and Globalization


Transnational Corporations are ones that operate all over the world ­ usually having their research and headquarters in MDCs
and locating the manufacturing plants in LDCs. They can be split in to three different groups according to what industry they
are.

Primary
Natural resource…

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Alex Buckingham 5
Development and Globalization


Top down aid is usually the worst kind as it is more ;'throwing' money at a country and allowing them to get on with it. It
usually focuses on large scale, expensive projects which are unsuitable for the local community. It often doesn't go…

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Alex Buckingham 6
Development and Globalization


At the Rio Earth Summit an environmental checklist was drawn up to show how the tourism industry could become more
sustainable, these included:

Waste minimisation, land use, re-use and recycling
Energy efficiency and management
Transport
Water (freshwater and waste)
Land use planning and management…

Page 7

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Alex Buckingham 7
Development and Globalization


Problems:

Dramatic gap between rich and poor ­ one of the biggest in the world
Huge rural/urban migration has left thousands in the countryside isolated as well as a decrease in agriculture
meaning that poverty and famine has spread.
Deterioration of environment and use…

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Alex Buckingham 8
Development and Globalization


Increased employment in the USA as manufacturing Dumping in Mexico
grew Mexico is being exploited because o less rigid
Mexico got increased FDI as other countries wanted pollution laws which affects surrounding countries
to locate inside NAFTA.

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EU ­ Socio-Economic Groupings

27 member…

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Alex Buckingham 9
Development and Globalization


This example illustrates the balance of pros and cons of top down aid. Furthermore the amount of NGO's that may try and help
could possibly undermine the policies that the government are pursuing and it is difficult to make them accountable as no one…

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