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Slide 1

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What were the effects of racism in
the northern and southern states
During the First World War, there was the period of the
`Great Migration' when thousands of black Americans
moved from the south to the north. This was because
the war meant that there were job opportunities in the
great industrial cities of the north such as Chicago and
Detroit. The First World War was followed by an
economic boom in the 1920's and this attracted more
blacks to the north. During this period about 500,000
migrated from the south to the north. There were
substantial differences between how black Americans
were treated in the north and the south. However,
inequality was a characteristic of life across America.…read more

Slide 2

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What were the effects of racism in
the South?
Jim Crow or `de jure' discrimination
Working conditions
The power of the Ku Klux Klan
Voting rights…read more

Slide 3

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Jim Crow or `de Jure' Discrimination
Racism was especially severe in the south
This was because blacks were subjected to legal
or `de jure' discrimination (i.e. Discrimination
that was rooted in the Jim Crow Laws that had
been passed in southern states).
Jim Crow Laws segregated housing, schools,
transport and public amenities
Education was segregated and white universities
refused to accept black students
Schools for black Americans had a quarter of
the budget of schools educating white children…read more

Slide 4

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Working Conditions
Many southern blacks were employed as
This meant they had to work for a share of the
crop, but needed to borrow money from the
landowner to pay for equipment and seed
These loans were charged at exorbitant rates of
interest, often meaning that the sharecropper
was perpetually in debt
By 1944 the mechanical cotton picker had been
This machine could do the work of 50 people
and therefore created large-scale
unemployment amongst black sharecroppers in
the south…read more

Slide 5

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The Power of the Ku Klux Klan
This white supremacist organisation
targeted black people who showed any kind
of `disrespect' towards white people
Black people who were growing prosperous
or who challenged segregation could be
terrorised by the Klan
In 1900 there were 115 lynchings in America
The Klan was very powerful in the south and
many were judges, policemen or other
This meant black Americans found it
difficult to achieve justice in the south…read more

Slide 6

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Voting Rights
Under the 15th Amendment black
people had the rights to vote throughout
However, southern states prevented this
from happening with the `grandfather
clause', which said blacks could only
vote if their grandfather had voted or
with literacy tests that were not applied
fairly…read more

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