Civil Right Movement

The CRM:

People involved,event,dates, organisation,legislations...

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People Involved

Martin Luther King

  • Received Nobel Peace Prize

Thurgood Marshall

  • Justice in 67

Mithcell ,Huey Newton ,Stokey Carmichael ,Roy Wilkins ,Senator Russell

Earl Warren

  • Chief Justice of the Supreme court, 1953, appointed by Ike
  • Appointed as a Civil Rights action
  • Did Ikeís Dirty work
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  • Forms committee on civil rights, 46
  • Issues To Secure these Rights, 47
  • Desegregated the military, 48

Lyndon Johnson

  • By 1960s, federal government had grown into a massive organisation
  • Took an extremely active approach
  • Led a majority government
  • Manoeuvred budgeting so that states were under the federal govís wing
  • Government had the power to punish the states against CR, thanks to LBJís manoeuvring
  • Government enforced equality:Housing projects, industrialisation
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John F. Kennedy

  • JFK for human rights
  • Took a cautious approach "with one stroke of the pen"
  • During freedom rides, called for a "cool down" period

Dwight Eisenhower

  • Ike wanted gradual desegregation induced by culture, not government
  • Ike proved that the army and federal government could kill mob violence
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Montgomery Bus boycott

  • Sparked by Rosa Parks, Dec 1 1955
  • Martin Luther King spoke to motivate people in Montgomery during her protest
  • MLK was involved
  • Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) used the churches
  • Gained more than it had intended: elimination of segregation
  • Used the media effectively

Little Rock

  • Sept 1957, students try to enrol in high school
  • Orval Faubus and Southern Manifesto prevent them
  • Ike sends in the national guard
  • Shows that federal government can stop racial inequality
  • Civil Rights Act passes in the same year
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Freedom Rides

  • 1961, CORE creates them to promote equality
  • in protest of Kennedy's doddering
  • Burned, beaten, destroyed
  • Kennedy asks delegates for a "cool down period"' they refuse
  • JFK's poor record on civil rights was revealed by this fiasco

Birmingham 1962-63

  • MLK, SCLC protests in the City are a major turning point
  • Nation of Islam, NAACP, SNCC, CORE all participated
  • This reaffirmed MLK's reputation
  • Against Eugene Connor (violent police officer)
  • wrote letter a from a Birmingham Jail which was a profound statement in the name of CR
  • This protest solidified MLK's resolve
  • JFK saw that he had to intervene ,Proposed new legislation for Civil Rights
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The March on Washington

  • August 63
  • 250,000 marched, heard "I have a dream"
  • SNCC makes violent appeals

Freedom Summer

  • 64, mass voting registration in Mississippi by SNCC
  • College graduates used to bring problems to the north
  • Several Delegates murdered
  • Rioting in Harlem and Rochester, NY
  • MFDP delegation rejected from Atlantic City conference<
  • Results in Civil Rights Act of 64
  • SNCC and CORE tire of peaceful methods
  • Blacks saw that they depended greatly on the government
  • Hurt by the Whites violence
  • Liberals back LBJ, not MFDP
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Selma Massacre

  • March 65 ,The last nonviolent moment
  • SNCC organised demonstrations
  • A massacre as 600 headed to Montgomery
  • Bloody Sunday
  • Jim Clark attacked brutally
  • MLK turns back second march
  • Malcolm X spoke, thanks to the SNCC
  • LBJ comes to support voting legislation
  • Results in Voting Rights act of 65
  • 10 years after Rosa Parks


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  • Watts ,65, showing the end of peaceful protests
  • A direct result of Selma massacre
  • End of an era
  • Chicago, 66
  • From entry of movement into north
  • Newark, then Detroit, 67
  • Worst rioting in history of America ,Show how much needed to be done in the North

Death of Martin Luther King

  • 68 in Memphis
  • After LBJ wont run again
  • Results in terrible Race riots
  • Leader is gone -PEOPLE LOSE HOPE
  • Government can't help them anymore
  • LBJ forces through the Fair Housing Act in time of Guilt
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Chicago Campaign

  • 66, show different situation in North
  • Conniving racists, blame blacks for inciting race riots
  • Northerners were tougher opponents
  • Daley and cops didnít commit atrocities
  • Problems there were more elusive
  • During demonstrations:
  • Cops didn't use brutality
  • Daley a wise opponent</li>
  • Alienated moderate liberals
  • Daley blamed violence for social decay
  • 1968: housing legislation protests
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The Poor People's Campaign Resurrection City, 68

  • Organised by Abernathy
  • Caravans of Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans, and a majority of African Americans that built a shantytown in DC
  • This shocked LBJ
  • He hated to see the ugliness of poverty, and to be reminded of how much remained to be done
  • They were asked to enter government property illegally, and thus end their struggle dramatically
  • Lame Duck Johnson couldn't solve their problem now
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National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP), 1909

  • Founded by Du Bois</li>
  • Had golden age in early Civil Rights era
  • Thurgood Marshall and Roy Wilkins destroyed the legal base of segregation
  • fought to end segregation aspect by aspect
  • Prepared the way for the modern movement
  • Brown v. Board of Education, 54
  • Baker v. Carr: eliminates racial gerrymandering and reaffirms "one man, one vote", 62
  • Criticised for being too legal, too hierarchical by Baker
  • Supported violent parties legally, financially
  • Under Wilkinsís tutelage, was the only group to survive the era
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Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 42

  • To desegregate transportation
  • 47, journey of reconciliation
  • reborn in 60s as the Freedom Riders, 61
  • Numerous nonviolent protests in the early 60s
  • switched to Black Power after Freedom Summer

Southern Manifesto, 56

  • Southern congressmen and senators refuse to desegregate schools,
  • and resist implementing Brown by "any lawful means"
  • South resisted the resolution for 10 years
  • Outright neglected it
  • Created new devious rules around it
  • Obfuscated the verdict
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Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 57

  • Formed to use the power of black churches on behalf of black rights
  • Organised Birmingham
  • Tried to lure students from radical organisations,
  • attacked as conservative in Black Power days
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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC): 60

  • Formed after sit-ins
  • Students remain independent
  • Affiliated with Ella Baker: Zinn considers her of fundamental importance
  • A More militant organisation, that went south
  • Prodded other organisations to harsher measures
  • Involved in Birmingham, Selma
  • Violent speeches in march on Washington
  • Attacked King and NAACP
  • Organised Freedom Summer under Moses, in 64
  • Helped to found MFDP
  • With Stokey Carmichael, switched to Black Power in 1966
  • Integration White Ways
  • Black Power Freedom
  • Purged Whites
  • Condemned Vietnam, 66
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Nation of Islam, 30s

  • Radical organisation of Malcolm X
  • Back to Muslim roots, emergence of nationalism
  • Anti-White organisation
  • Malcolm X left in 64,
  • Murdered Malcolm X in 65


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Black Panther Party (BPP), 66

  • Formed in CA
  • Led by Huey Newton
  • Fiery Rhetoric
  • Pragmatic programs, armed defense
  • Acted as neighbourhood police
  • Free breakfasts
  • FBI spied on the Panthers like the Communists
  • Intentionally divided the movement
  • Inserted agents provocateurs
  • In 70s, divided between militancy and pragmatism (Newtonís side)
  • By the time COINTELPRO was killed, it had eliminated the Panthers and other militant groups
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Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), 64

  • MS party born out of freedom summer
  • Affiliated with Ella Baker, a great leader
  • Challenged MS democratic party at Atlantic City conference
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  • desegregated the military

Ike (Dwight Eisenhower)

  • Appointed Earl Warren, the liberal, to do his dirty work
  • CR Act of 57:
  • Create a federal CR commission,
  • supreme court CR division
  • CR act of 60:
  • Ban interference with federal declarations on school desegregation,
  • judges can hear complaints against officals
  • Ike helped CR through appointing liberal justices to the Supreme Court
  • Both watered down to appease southerners
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  • Civil rights act of 1964 (LBJ)
    • drastic legislation Prohibits discrimination in public accommodations on sex, race
    • Gov has more power to compel locals to desegregate institutions
    • Established penalties for transgressors
    • But it does not protect voting rights
    • May not be followed in the South
  • Voting Rights act, 65
    • Voting rights act comes after Selma
    • Federal registrars to go to the deep south
    • No poll tax, educational requirements
    • Redrawing of county lines so as to help minorities
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  • Housing Act, 1968 = no discrimination in federal housing projects
    • War on Poverty FDR's New Deal had been designed to help those who had at one time been rich, but who were made poor by the depression LBJ's War on Poverty was targeted at those who had always been poor, or never held a job before The "********* poor"
    • He wanted a big economy to provide jobs for blacks, help lift up the poor, and amass more federal funds without raising taxes **Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO)was an organisation with branches to assist the poor The original plan was toned down to appease conservatives
  • Community Action Program (CAP)
    • Organised the poor, and undermined the mayors of big cities
    • College students sent out into the slums and backcountry to help the poorand to raise public awareness of the plight of poverty
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  • Kerner Committee Report
    • Report of Advisory Commission on Civil Disobedience, Kerner Commission, 68
    • Riots come from white racism, social polarisation, from ghetto created and endorsed by Whites, Need massive federal spending to save the ghetto
    • LBJ was shocked, white backlash from violent riots lowered support for helping
    • MLK and Bobby wanted to attack poverty based on the commission, both were dead by summer 68
  • Affirmative Action: 71,
  • UC Regents v. Bakke in 74, proposition 209, 96
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  • Brown v. Board of Education
  • Part of Roy Wilkinsís campaign against the laws, Thurgood Marshall proved segregation was unlawful, from unequal funding, and bad conditions of black schools showed a union of the black lower and upper classes
  • Lawyers examined the psychological effects of separate but equal
  • Kenneth Clark showed that separation had detrimental effects on black schoolchildren
  • Overturns Plessy v. Ferguson
  • South resisted dramatically: Southern Manifesto
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Black Power

  • Carmichaelís moniker after Meredith was shot
  • Shortcomings of previous CR movement
  • Over-focus on South, disregard of North
  • Peace in the face of unrestrained violence
  • Movement went to the North after Watts riot
  • New leaders arose, movement lost supportBy late 60s, Malcolm X's philosophy led the movement, not MLK's
  • 1966: SNCC switches to Nationalism, Black Power
  • Integration White Ways
  • Black Power Freedom
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Reasons why the movement came about

  • Mechanisation of agriculture
  • Destabilised the south = Divided the Whites into haves and have-nots
  • Great Migration = Brought issues of race problems and racism to the North
  • 50/50 distribution by movement's end
  • Considering it only a Southern problem allowed issue to fester until it exploded at Watts
  • International role of US, fighting the Nazis hurt American racism, BUT allowed crackdown on Black power
  • USSR constantly attacked their racism in the cold war
  • America's Achilles' Heel - Henry Lodge BUT allowed anti-communists to attack the Blacks as being socialistic
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