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Water on the Land

The Hydrosphere: The part of the Earth's environment where water is found

The Hydrological (water) Cycle: Where water is used over and over again in a never ending cycle

The amount of water on earth always stays the same as it is a closed system


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River Discharge

Discharge: the amount of water in a river passing a given point at a given time.

Cross Sectional Area x Velocity
(W x D) x (speed)

Factors affecting discharge rates:

High air temperature: decrease amount of discharge as more water is evaporated.
A low water table: decrease amount…

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The Course of the River

Lots of Energy Vertical Erosion Deep water
High Velocity Medium Velocity Wide channel
Steep Gradient Quite steep gradient Little Energy
V-shaped Valley Fairly Wide channel Gentle gradient
Interlocking Spurs Medium bed-load Transportation
Shallow Water Vertical and lateral erosion Deposition
Erosion Medium altitude…

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Over time this process of undercutting and collapsing is repeated many times so the waterfall retreats
upstream, creating a steep-sided gorge. Also chips of hard cap rock are eroded away, reducing the height
of the waterfall.

Middle and Lower Course

Meander: A bend in a rivers course

The fastest flow…

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There are four main erosion processes:

There are four processes of transportation

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Deposition -where material is dropped or deposited by a river. There deposits are called alluvium or silt,
small fine particles.

Depositional Landforms

Levees ­ a natural embankment of silt and deposited material on the river banks.

Floodplains ­ An area of land (plains) that often gets covered with water in…

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Artificial banks usually made with stone boulders. They prevent bank erosion and maintain a deep straight

Man-made levees are made of impermeable concrete walls surrounded by earth material. The reduce
erosion and help to maintain a deep channel and can hold flood water above the level of the…

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Issues with water transfer:

Water from different parts of the country has different mineral, nutrient, acidity and temperature
characteristics and so this foreign water will effect insect, fish and plant life in other areas.
Land will be lost and river habitats and fish migration will be disturbed.
Pipes split…




this is amazing!! 

Former Member


This was really helpful!

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