Water on the Land

basic notes on water on the land

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Louise
  • Created on: 21-05-11 14:04
Preview of Water on the Land

First 286 words of the document:

Water on the Land
The Hydrosphere: The part of the Earth's environment where water is found
The Hydrological (water) Cycle: Where water is used over and over again in a never ending cycle
The amount of water on earth always stays the same as it is a closed system
The Hydrological Cycle
1) Evaporation- liquid water from the
earth's surface heating up and
turning into water vapour.
2) Condensation- Water vapour
cooling down in the sky and turning
into water droplets.
3) (Clouds move by wind)
4) Precipitation- Water droplets falling
from the sky as rain, hail, sleet or
snow, too heavy for clouds
5) Interception- When trees catch the
water before it reaches the ground
6) Evapo-Transpiration- Evaporation of
water from plants and trees.
7) Surface run-off- Water flowing
overland along the surface
8) Through-flow- Water flowing through the soil
9) Groundwater-flow- Water flowing through permeable rock.
10) Infiltration- Water going from the surface into the soil.
11) Percolation- Water going from the soil into rock.
Drainage Basins
A drainage basin is an area of land drained by a river and its tributaries.
Mouth - where the river meets the sea and ends
Source -Where the river begins, often higher land.
Confluence - Where tributaries join each other of the main river.
Watershed -The boundary of the drainage basin, water that lands inside it
is drained by the river.
Tributary - A stream or a small river that flows into a bigger one.
Factors affecting drainage basins
Size of Basin
Steepness of Slope
Amount of Precipitation

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

River Discharge
Discharge: the amount of water in a river passing a given point at a given time.
Cross Sectional Area x Velocity
(W x D) x (speed)
Factors affecting discharge rates:
High air temperature: decrease amount of discharge as more water is evaporated.
A low water table: decrease amount of discharge as more water can infiltrate the soil.
Frozen Soil: increase amount of discharge as water can't infiltrate the soil.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

The Course of the River
Lots of Energy Vertical Erosion Deep water
High Velocity Medium Velocity Wide channel
Steep Gradient Quite steep gradient Little Energy
V-shaped Valley Fairly Wide channel Gentle gradient
Interlocking Spurs Medium bed-load Transportation
Shallow Water Vertical and lateral erosion Deposition
Erosion Medium altitude Low Altitude
High Altitude quite deep water Large Meanders
Large Bed-load
Narrow Channel
Rivers are split into Upper, Middle and Lower courses, each stage has different characteristics
Upper Middle Lower
The Upper Course
V-Shaped Valleys…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Over time this process of undercutting and collapsing is repeated many times so the waterfall retreats
upstream, creating a steep-sided gorge. Also chips of hard cap rock are eroded away, reducing the height
of the waterfall.
Middle and Lower Course
Meander: A bend in a rivers course
The fastest flow of a river can be found on the outside of a river
bend. This is where erosion takes place. The water is very deep
here and a feature called a river-cliff is formed.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

There are four main erosion processes:
There are four processes of transportation…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Deposition -where material is dropped or deposited by a river. There deposits are called alluvium or silt,
small fine particles.
Depositional Landforms
Levees ­ a natural embankment of silt and deposited material on the river banks.
Floodplains ­ An area of land (plains) that often gets covered with water in time of flood.
Deltas ­ Where deposited material (alluvium and silt) builds up the river channel which breaks into
distributaries to carry water to the sea.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Artificial banks usually made with stone boulders. They prevent bank erosion and maintain a deep straight
Man-made levees are made of impermeable concrete walls surrounded by earth material. The reduce
erosion and help to maintain a deep channel and can hold flood water above the level of the flood plain.
(e.g. around the Mississippi river)
Soft Engineering
Trees intercept water. Planting trees on a flood plain or in the drainage basin reduce run-off and flooding.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Issues with water transfer:
Water from different parts of the country has different mineral, nutrient, acidity and temperature
characteristics and so this foreign water will effect insect, fish and plant life in other areas.
Land will be lost and river habitats and fish migration will be disturbed.
Pipes split up land and look horrible.…read more



this is amazing!! 

Former Member

This was really helpful!

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »