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Presidents 1890-1945
What did the Republicans stand for?
The Republicans were formed in 1854 as part of the anti-slavery movement. As time went on the party became
increasingly pro-business but it did have a reformist wing that was influenced by progressivism. It promoted
anti-trust laws, social justice and conservation. The…

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Benjamin Harrison 1889-1893
Domestic policy
Brought in the Antimonopoly legislation, the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
Introduced Silver coinage and a higher tariff
o This probably added to the Panic of 1893 (an economic depression)
Harrison supported bills that promoted African American rights in the South
o Although he could…

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o About $150 million of tax revenue a year was generated from taxes levied on beer,
tobacco, amusements, and some business transactions
Increased tariffs
o McKinley had campaigned to increase the tariff income both as a means of reducing
internal taxes and as a means of encouraging the expansion of…

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o De Lome's letter described McKinley as "weak and a bidder for the
admirations of the crowd" and, more importantly, revealed that the Spanish were
not negotiating in good faith with the United States
o Americans saw the letter as an attack on both McKinley's and the nation's honour

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o The high court's action was a major victory for the administration and put the business
community on notice that although this was a Republican administration, it would not
give business free rein to operate without regard for the public welfare
o Roosevelt then turned his attention to the nation's…

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During the Santo Domingo crisis, Roosevelt formulated what became known as the
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
o The corollary announced that the United States would serve as the "policeman" of the
Western Hemisphere, a policy which eventually created much resentment in Latin
Great White Fleet

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Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921
Domestic policy
Wilson revived the custom, abandoned in 1801, of addressing Congress in person and
immediately called for a series of reforms, which he had called the "New Freedom" in his
presidential campaign.
Decreased Tariffs
o During his administration the tariff was drastically decreased (1913) the Federal…

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o As the war drew to a close and preparations were begun for a peace conference,
Wilson was generally looked upon in Europe as the saviour of the future
o In the United States, however, he suffered an electoral setback in Nov 1918, after
appealing for the return of a…

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Agricultural prices fell
o Many farmers struggled
Coolidge ignored many important issues
o Labour unions fought for higher pay and lower taxes
o African Americans and Mexican Americans faced severe discrimination
o Not the federal governments job to legislate social change
Foreign policy
Signed the Immigration Act
o Restricting southern…

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Protected the livelihoods of labourers and farmers through the National Labour Relations Act
(NLRA) and Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
Established Social Security, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and the Federal
Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), all of which last to this day
Drastically decreased unemployment from 25% to 2% over…


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