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Unit 4D: Relevant revision notes


What are the main causes of war in the modern
world?
According to Walter Fritz, beyond survival and emotion there are other
subjective reasons for war including:

The belief that the war will be beneficial to society in the long run

Errors of appreciation of…

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power to control the resource, and not the resource itself, that is usually the
reason for war.

When the USSR collapsed in1990 many of the conflicts that were subdued
during the Cold War came to life. Many of these conflicts, for example Kashmir
and Chechnya were caused by ethnic nationalism.…

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Cultural/Perceptual factors (patters of cultural discrimination; problematic
group histories)



Is conflict more prevalent in the modern world?
During the Cold War the prevailing cause of conflict was the clash between
communist and capitalist ideologies.

The threat of nuclear warfare is claimed to have kept all other conflicts under
wraps, but…

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It is not meaningful now because the two are so interlinked - civil war can lead
to interstate war, and interstate war can lead to civil war (Iraq now)

It is even more meaningful now because of the continued persistence of the
UN and international community to differentiate between inter-state…

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Nigeria and South Africa do have the ability and the will to project some
stabilising force beyond their borders but it is limited.

In recent years there has been an increasing demand for UN involvement in
peacekeeping and also the nature and demands of peacekeeping have become
increasingly more complex…

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Is national interest involved?

By authorisation of the Security Council ­ Chapter IIV of the UN Charter ­
"action with respect to threats to the peace, breaches of peace and acts of
aggression" ­ can be extended to human rights violations and breaches of rules
on WMD etc

The Security…

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After initial reluctance Clinton was persuaded to get behind military
intervention in the Bosnian conflict and the US played an important
part in bringing about an end to the inter-ethnic slaughter

More recently the US played a key role in taking action against the
Serbs in Kosovo

In both cases…

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eventually intervene to help create and ease the new nation into
being.

Australia rather than the USA led the military intervention and in the
new `nation building' process direct US involvement has been
minimal

In the case of UN supported interventions in world conflicts obviously these
cannot take place without…

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Support for different levels of WMD development and control varies nationally
and internationally.

Until 1998 the declared nuclear powers were the permanent members of the
Security Council (USA, UK, Russia, France and China), but now after carrying
out a series of nuclear tests India, Pakistan and Israel have joined the…

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What has been done to combat the proliferation of
WMDs?
In the post-Cold War period there is greater concern about nuclear
proliferation. "the spread of nuclear weapons themselves and the technology
and knowledge required to build them" (J. Spear and F. Robertson-Snape)

"Reflecting the power positions of the nuclear weapons…

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mallikaarora

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do u have any more? For 4d

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