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Artificial and controlled setting not natural
to the participant of the study.
The independent variable is manipulated by
the researcher and the dependent variable is
measured to see the effect of the IV on the
All other variables are controlled to the best
of the researchers ability (extraneous
With laboratory experiments cause and
effect conclusions can be drawn.…read more

Slide 3

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Careful controls make the By isolating variables the
experiment replicable so it situation is not as in `real life'
can be tested for reliability ­ so finding's are not likely to
if carried out again and be valid
findings are similar then it is Laboratory experiments
likely to be reliable usually lack validity of the
Good controls means there task and therefore are not
should be few confounding representative of true
variables so experiment is behaviour.
objective e.g. there should be
no subjectivity from the
experimenters interventions
and interpretations.
It is scientific…read more

Slide 4

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Interested in the effectiveness of eyewitness testimony.
Looked at the effects of leading questions by changing the wording of
questions asked to different groups of participants on memory (or
Pp's were shown a video of a car crash and then asked "what speed do
you think the cars were travelling when they ___" with the final word
varying between contacted, bumped, collided, hit and smashed for
different groups.
The average speed estimates for each group were measured finding
that `contacted' have the lowest estimate 31.8mph and `smashed' the
highest with 40.8mph with a 10 mph difference.
It was pioneering research to look at leading questions in a controlled
environment and how it affects responses.
It has real life applications ­ police interviewing and the reliability of
However Eynsenck et al said it lacked mundane realism ­ there is no
real emotion connected with watching a video so it is not similar to an
EWT situation.
Lacks ecological validity and there were no follow up studies in
connection with results.…read more

Slide 5

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Takes place in the natural setting of the pp's
The IV is manipulated and the DV is measured to
see the effect of changing the IV on the DV.
Other variables are controlled although this
becomes more difficult when in a natural setting
as the experimenters have less control over the
Cause and effect conclusions can be drawn from
these experiments as far as is possible within the
natural setting, the researchers may claim the
change in the IV caused the change in the DV.…read more

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Careful controls means Although the setting may
that they are replicable be valid, the task may not
and can be tested for be ­ to test a hypothesis
reliability certain features have to be
Good controls means there removed from the
should be few confounding experiment to isolate the
variables, experiment is variables being studied ­
objective and scientific therefore it is questionable
whether real life is being
Will have ecological studied.
validity as the pp is in their
natural setting ­ normal Harder to control
behaviour will be extraneous variables as
observed. this takes place out of the
controlled and artificial
setting of lab experiments…read more

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