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ELEMENTS THAT MAKE SOMETHING
SCIENTIFIC
Hypothetico deductive model ­ the process of a hypothesis being
formulated which is tested and the findings are either accepted
or rejected in regards to the hypothesis. If the hypothesis is
accepted, more research is done and the theory develops.
Objectivity ­ there must be no individual subjectivity affecting
study
Reductionism ­ studying complex areas using one sole focal
aspect
Holism ­ opposite of reductionism, looking at a concept as a
whole e.g. the case study of Genie.
Operationalization ­Making variables being investigated
measurable
Paradigm's ­ a thought pattern within a scientific discipline, what
is to be observed and scrutinised
Falsification ­ if we try to falsify, rather than prove, we will be
more rigorous and therefore formulate more accurate
conclusions.…read more

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COGNITIVE APPROACH AS A
SCIENCE
Hypothetico deductive model:
Hypothesis are formulated and tested and theories are developed and
empirical data is observed. For example, Miller with 7+or-2 items in the
short term memory. Theories are rigorously tested.
Scientific subject matter:
Memory, perception, attention
Brain works like a computer/information processor
Tests concepts using scientific methodology e.g. Multi-store model
being disputed by the working model of memory.
Reductionism:
Attempts to minimise variables and uses laboratory experiments to control
extraneous variables. e.g. Miller. However humans are difficult to reduce
to one variable due to emotions etc. that are uncontrollable.
Falsification:
Uses falsification as experiments are repeated over and over again, the
multi-store model of memory was falsified by the working model of
memory.
Paradigms:
Information processor
Brain works like a computer and is testable using experimental
methods.…read more

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SOCIAL APPROACH AS A SCIENCE
Hypothetico deductive model:
Hypothesis are formulated and tested and theories are developed e.g.
Sherif et al (1954) however there is an element of subjective
interpretation and individual differences could be the cause of behaviour.
It is difficult to obtain empirical data using the social approach.
Scientific subject matter:
It doesn't have scientific subject matter because principles are individuals
in society, group membership and response to authority.
Reductionism:
Doesn't use reductionism although extraneous variables are minimised
they rarely use laboratory experiments. Use of human beings with
complex emotions means they cannot adopt reductionist approach e.g.
Hofling uses a nurses subjective experience.
Falsification:
To an extent, theories are not rigorously tested and field experiments are
used. Milgram (1963) had many variations of his study.
Paradigms:
The paradigms are influenced by society, cultures and other groups e.g.
Sherif et al (1954)…read more

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PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH AS A
SCIENCE
Hypothetico deductive model:
Hypothesis were formulated but tested through case studies yielding
qualitative data not empirical data and subjective conclusions were drawn
giving bias'
Scientific subject matter:
It doesn't have any, it is based on the theories of three personality types
(id, ego and superego), psychosexual stages, psychoanalysis and the
unconscious mind e.g. Axline.
Reductionism:
Not at all used in case studies, a holistic approach was adopted e.g. Little
Hans.
Falsification:
Not at all used, defence mechanisms were used to cover up any
unexpected alterations in results which could disprove a theory e.g.
repression and denial.
Paradigms:
It does use paradigms, the psychosexual stages suggests that the first 5
years of life are the most important, psychoanalysis has been used as a
contribution to society in unlocking the unconscious and is widely used
today.…read more

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BIOLOGICAL APPROACH AS A
SCIENCE
Hypothetico deductive model:
Hypotheses are formulated and tested and theories are developed
and empirical data is observed e.g. PET scans in Raine et al.
Scientific subject matter:
Does include scientific subject matter, genes, hormones, brain
lateralisation, brain localisation e.g. Amygdala is the part of the
brain that deals with emotions and is larger in Autistic brains,
autism can be explained using the extreme male brain.
Reductionism:
Does use reductionism, attributes behaviours and characteristics to
biological factors (nature) e.g. Down's syndrome
Falsification:
Does use falsification, tests hypothesis by repeating experiments
and methodology which all lead to use of falsification. The use of
MRI/PET scans and inter-rata reliability.
Paradigms:
Does use paradigms, focuses on genes, brain lateralisation and
localisation e.g. Autism is an extreme male brain.…read more

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