unit 2 notes

my gcse sociology unit 2 notes

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  • Created on: 18-06-12 10:30
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Crime and Deviance
What is crime and Deviance?
Crime is an illegal act that breaks the law and is punishable by law (e.g. Fine, community order or
imprisonment [capital punishment])
Deviance is an act the breaks the social norms and values of a particular society(cross-cultural)
Deviance is socially defined (it changes
according to specific variables)
Deviance can both be legal and illegal
Social control (formal and informal)
Formal social control ­ based on written rules and laws
The positive effect is social order
Agencies of formal social control:
police force
house of parliament
the court
( education system)
Informal social control- based on rules that aren't written down
They are enforced by pressure from informal agencies of
Positive effects includes rewards for `good behaviour ` and negative
includes exclusion from the group
Agencies of informal social control:
Peer group
Work place
(education system)
Explaining Crime & Deviance
Inadequate socialisation (new right) ­ the new right argues that inadequate socialisation can
lead to a life that is more prone to crime.
- They also argue that a lone parent family doesn't give a
good socialisation for its children as there aren't enough
good role models.
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Francheska M.Boco 10G *=general information

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Sub-cultural theories- this highlights the peer group pressure that we receive from peers to
conform to the norms and values which can include criminal activities.
-Albert Cohen argued that working-class joined delinquent groups to gain
status amongst their peers.
Marxist explanations- they link the argument to the social inequality built into society.
-they argue that both classes commit crime but working class individuals
are more likely to be convicted because of the bias criminal justice system.…read more

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Gender and crime-gender socialisation= boy are more likely to be bought up to be tough and
girls are more likely to be bought up to be obedient.
Opportunity to crime= girls are more likely to be confined at home
with greater parental supervision.
Chivalry effect (thesis) = men are more likely to be prosecuted and
women cautioned.…read more

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Social inequality
Defining Social Inequality
Social inequality- refers to the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities.
*social class, gender, age and ethnicity are all variables resulting to
modern British society.
Defining social stratification
social stratification- refers to the unequal hierarchical arrangement of society
* A social hierarchy is pyramid shape the big mediocre at the
bottom and the small elite at the top.
Different forms of stratification:
Caste system- a rigid system that where status is only ascribed.…read more

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The system does not show a clear difference between
individuals that have the same occupation but different
economic standing
Registrar General's scale
I Professional occupations MC
II Managerial and technical MC
IIIN skilled occupation- non-manual MC
IIIM Skilled occupations- manual WC
IV Partly skilled occupations WC
V Unskilled occupations WC
The National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification- It includes student and the unemployed in
the scale
- This scale is based on occupation; rewards of the job,
employment status and the level of authority and control.…read more

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- Education
Age ­ age is socially constructed = the concept of ageing can vary depending on which culture
- Ageism = the concept of age varies from culture to culture.…read more

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Single/lone parent ­social stigma =there are still some negative insight into lone parent ship
although it is significantly less compared to 50 yrs. ago
- Job prospects
- Work
- Costs of child/ren
Nuclear family ­ costs of living
- Gender segregation
- Lack of aid from the govt.…read more

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AV- an Alternative Voting system that is argued to be
fairer as it promotes a proportional seating system.
Participation in political processes
*Apathy ­ absence of enthusiasm. People are politically apathetic as they are under-represented in
* People from higher income families are more likely to participate or exercise their political power.
Opportunities of participation ­ traditional forms= participation linked to governmental
and electoral aspects of politics (e.g. standing for a
position, voting in elections, etc.…read more

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Alienation and power at work
Alienation- when you get little or no satisfaction from your job
* Alienation is when people are isolated and do not see the worth of doing something. This
is a Marx theory where your position in the hierarchy depends on what kinds of alienation
you endure
Mass media
Mass media
The press ­this includes newspapers that are privately owned and run as profit making
business.…read more

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Effect and impact of the media
Hypodermic approach ­ an approach that argues that the audience receives daily
injections of messages that has a direct and powerful effect on
people's behaviour or beliefs.
- *Was popular during the 1930's and 1940's
Uses and gratifications approach this approach focuses on the audience using the
media to satisfy and meet their own needs
Decoding approach sees the people as active decoders of the programme contents.…read more


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