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Crime and Deviance
What is crime and Deviance?

Crime is an illegal act that breaks the law and is punishable by law (e.g. Fine, community order or
imprisonment [capital punishment])
Deviance is an act the breaks the social norms and values of a particular society(cross-cultural)

Deviance is socially defined (it…

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Sub-cultural theories- this highlights the peer group pressure that we receive from peers to
conform to the norms and values which can include criminal activities.
-Albert Cohen argued that working-class joined delinquent groups to gain
status amongst their peers.
Marxist explanations- they link the argument to the social inequality built…

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Gender and crime-gender socialisation= boy are more likely to be bought up to be tough and
girls are more likely to be bought up to be obedient.
Opportunity to crime= girls are more likely to be confined at home
with greater parental supervision.
Chivalry effect (thesis) = men are more…

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Social inequality
Defining Social Inequality

Social inequality- refers to the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities.
*social class, gender, age and ethnicity are all variables resulting to
modern British society.

Defining social stratification

social stratification- refers to the unequal hierarchical arrangement of society
* A social hierarchy is pyramid shape…

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- The system does not show a clear difference between
individuals that have the same occupation but different
economic standing
Registrar General's scale

I Professional occupations MC
II Managerial and technical MC
IIIN skilled occupation- non-manual MC
IIIM Skilled occupations- manual WC
IV Partly skilled occupations WC
V Unskilled occupations…

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- Language
- Education
Age ­ age is socially constructed = the concept of ageing can vary depending on which culture
- Ageism = the concept of age varies from culture to culture.

Social mobility

* Britain is an open society where social mobility is (argued to be) abundant


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Single/lone parent ­social stigma =there are still some negative insight into lone parent ship
although it is significantly less compared to 50 yrs. ago
- Job prospects
- Work
- Costs of child/ren

Nuclear family ­ costs of living
- Gender segregation
- Lack of aid from the govt.

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- AV- an Alternative Voting system that is argued to be
fairer as it promotes a proportional seating system.

Participation in political processes

*Apathy ­ absence of enthusiasm. People are politically apathetic as they are under-represented in

* People from higher income families are more likely to participate or…

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Alienation and power at work

Alienation- when you get little or no satisfaction from your job

* Alienation is when people are isolated and do not see the worth of doing something. This
is a Marx theory where your position in the hierarchy depends on what kinds of alienation

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Effect and impact of the media

Hypodermic approach ­ an approach that argues that the audience receives daily
injections of messages that has a direct and powerful effect on
people's behaviour or beliefs.
- *Was popular during the 1930's and 1940's
Uses and gratifications approach this approach focuses on the…


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