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Data and disease
· Analysing and interpreting data on
· Correlations and causal relationships
· Looking critically at data…read more

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Analysing and interpreting
Incidence Describe the graph:
of cancer Explain the graph:
Say what the trends is
Give reasons for the
Age figures and trend
(Years) Give some figures…read more

Slide 4

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Analysing and interpreting
The incidence of cancer increases with age.
Up until the age of 34 only small numbers
of people get cancer for both men and
women. From the ages of 35 to 55 women
are more at risk, but beyond that men are
more at risk. At the age of 75 the incidence
of cancer form women is just under 2000
of cancer
per 100,000 but for men it is over 3000
per 100,000.
At the age of 15-24 people are quite young
and are generally healthy. However as you
Age get older you are more likely to contract
(Years) cancer because the body is less efficient.
After the age of 64 men are more at risk
because they are generally more unhealthy
(overweight, smoking etc), so they are more
likely to get cancer. They also tend to do
manual jobs where they may be exposed to
carcinogens.…read more

Slide 5

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Correlations and causal relationships
A correlation occurs when a change in one of two variables is reflected by a change in the other
A causal relationship is when one variable causes the change in another variable.
Graphs do not show a causal relationship - they show a
correlation. To say that there is a causal relationship
between two factors you need more than just a graph. You
need to be able to actually show that there is a definite
relationship. This takes further experiments.…read more

Slide 6

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Looking critically at data
You cannot simply accept scientific data - you have to look at it critically. To do this, you have to decide
how reliable the data are. To do this, you have to ask some questions.
Were the
Has the right Are there still
methods used to
factor been unanswered
collect the data
measured? questions? reliable?
Do those who collected Has the study been
the information have a Has the correct
repeated and
vested interest in the
similar results
question been
outcome of the
experiment? achieved? asked?…read more

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