Unit 1 Biology and Disease 3.1.1 Pathogens and Lifestyle

This word document summarises chapter 1 of the AQA text book, 3.1.1 on the specification.

I made the notes with reference to the specification so hopefully everything is there.

If any one has any questions or corrections for me please let me know in the comments and I'll do my best to help :)

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Revision: Unit 1 Biology and Disease 3.1.1 Pathogens and Lifestyle
Communicable diseases (infectious diseases) are caused by microorganisms.
Microorganisms Single celled organisms.
Microorganisms that cause disease are called pathogens.
The most common pathogens are
o Viruses
o Bacteria
o Fungi

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Infection occurs when a pathogen
o Enters the host
o Colonises the tissues of the host
o Resists the defences of the host
o Causes damage to the host tissues.
Transmission When a pathogen is transferred from one individual to another.…read more

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How pathogens cause disease
o Pathogen must attach itself to host tissues.
o Penetrate the host cells.
o Colonise and reproduce within the host tissue.
Pathogens enter the host cell by
o Endocytosis
o Or by producing enzymes that breach the host cell membrane.
Colonisation depends on the pathogen's ability to reproduce in the host tissues.
o This may take time; the period of time between infection and the appearance of the signs and
symptoms of a disease is called the incubation period.…read more

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Physical activity
Reduced activity leads to an increased risk.
o Sunlight
The more someone is exposed to sunlight or light from sun beds, the greater the risk of skin
Risk factors and CHD (coronary heart disease)
Genes, age and sex are beyond our individual control.
Lifestyle factors can contribute to CHD;
o Smoking
o High blood pressure
o Blood cholesterol levels
o Obesity
A BMI higher than 25 increases the risk.…read more


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