Unit 3 15 marker plans: Liberalism, Socialism, Anarchism

Full 15 marker plans with thinkers and clear points for Unit 3 ideologies section.

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On what grounds have liberals believed in the fragmentation of government power (2014, 2010, Spec)
Liberals fear power as human beings are self seeking creatures. Egoism + power = corruption. People
seek to use it for their own benefit. Lord Acton, `Power tend to' Despotic regimes in the the middle east are
examples of consequences due to the lack of constitutional powers. The greater the concentration of power,
the more scope people have to both benefit themselves and abuse others to this end. This is why absolute
power leads to absolute corruption.
Constitution divides governmental power through internal fragmentation and separation of powers as
proposed by Montesquieu. E.g USA. Checks and balances, Written constitutions can act as a form of higher
law which protects citizens, e.g bill of rights or declaration of the rights of man etc. e.g. terrorism leg.
Fragmented government therefore creates internal constraints that prevent government from becoming a
tyranny against the individual.. Examples include the separation of powers, federalism, devolution,
bicameralism and cabinet government.
Liberal democracy balances government through popular sovereignty. Regular competitive election hold
govs to account. Guarantee civil liberties and universal suffrage `one person one vote'. Civil society with
freedoms etc. American Rev `no taxation without representation' way of protecting citizens from an
encroaching government.
On what grounds have liberals believed in individualism (2013)
Enlightenment and therefore subsequent reason and rationality releasing individuals from the bondage
of superstition to logical enquiry opposing the divine right of kings.. implications led to the creation of the
social contract Locke, Hobbes etc Egoism.. each individual being their own moral agent, human beings are
rational creatures, capable of reason and logical enquiry. Humans are by no means infallible but they are
capable nonetheless of defining what is in their own best interests. Kant espoused the need for the dignity
and the equal worth of human beings.. Treating individuals as end in themselves
Atomised view of the individual, merely a collection of selfsufficient individuals belief in the primacy
of the individual has sometimes lead, within liberalism, to a tendency towards atomisation, the individual is
selfish, egotistic, self serving and self reliant. MacPherson possessive individualism "the proprietor of his
own personal capacities, owing nothing to society for them".. individuals should be free to conduct whatever
selfregarding actions they see fit as long as they don't cause harm to other individuals.. Harm principle..
Endorse minimal `nightwatchman' state to protect liberties...Humboldt..
Developmental individualism Later liberals however have stressed the capacity that human beings have
for social responsibility... positive view of human nature egoism tempered down by a degree of social
responsibility.. nonetheless undermine the chief goal for liberals ­ which is to create a society in which each
person is capable of developing and flourishing to the fullness of their potential. One of the hallmarks of
liberalism is therefore an attachment to equality of opportunity.. As argued for by Rawls in his Liberty
principle.. Like liberty consistent for all in society.. Seen with Bridge think JS Mill supporting the Education Act
of 1970.

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On what grounds have liberals believed in constitutionalism (2013, 2011)
Constitutionalism refers to a set of political values and aspirations that reflect the desire to protect liberty
through the establishment of internal and external checks on government power. Typically expressed in
constitutional provisions that establish this goal, notably a codified constitution, a bill of rights, separation of
powers, bicameralism, federalism or decentralisation.
Defend constitutionalism because of distrust of government power.…read more

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Distinguish between positive and negative freedom (2015, 2012, 2011)
Although the value of liberty is hardly contested in different strands of liberalism, its meaning is sometimes
debated. Berlin (1958) differentiated between positive and negative liberty. Classical liberals have essentially
focused on negative liberty whilst modern liberals have moved their focus towards positive conceptions of
Positive freedom vs negative freedom (ML vs CL) Negative liberty implies an absence of constraint, an
expression of which may be found in A.V.…read more

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On what grounds have modern liberals defended the principle of social welfare? (2014)
Linked to the core value of justice. Fair distribution of rewards and punishments, giving each that which he is
due. Justice only achievable through equality and inequality denies justice. `Injustice anywhere is a threat to
justice everywhere' ­ Martin Luther King Human beings conceived of as individuals with natural rights and
equal moral worth. All have access to rights, which cannot be limited to a class or grouping.…read more

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On what grounds have socialists believed in class conflict (
Marxist and revolutionary socialism ­ society is understood in terms of class and class interest
revolutionary socialists seek a state organized exclusively in the interests of the working class Marxist seek
an ultimately classless society...Conflicts of interests cannot be resolved within the context of capitalism, so
they suggest the abolishment of capitalism and its replacement with a socialist order that will eliminate class
conflict all together.…read more

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On what grounds have socialists believed in a positive view of human nature (
Human nature is plastic and communal. Molded by experiences + circumstances of social life. Believe
humans have high capacity for social + personal development. Links to the core value of community which
is a collectivist vision as it stresses the capacity of human beings for collective action, their willingness to
pursue goals by working together as opposed to striving for personal interest.…read more

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Why have some socialists advocated revolution rather than reform (
Revolutionary socialism had a great deal of appeal for early socialists. Early industrialisation had caused
great immiseration, grinding poverty and widespread unemployment. There was a widespread view that
capitalism was a system of naked exploitation and oppression.
Revolution is the only means of achieving socialism.…read more

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Distinguish between fundamentalist socialism and revisionist socialism & Explain the key ideas associated
with revisionist socialism (2011) (2013)
In the modern era, revisionism can refer to any moderate socialist movements that make compromises with a
class analysis of society and with the revolutionary road to socialism.…read more

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Explain the link between anarchism and collectivism (2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010)
Based on socialist belief in collectivism Humans are essentially social beings with the capacity to
cooperate. Theorist: Peter Kropotkin (Mutual Aid a factor of Evolution). Kropotkin studied animals in Siberia
and came to the conclusion that most animals only develop in cooperative communities. Rejection of Social
Darwinism Cooperation was the key to Human evolution. Humans were the most successful species
because they had learnt to work together.…read more

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Explain the link between anarchism and antistatism ( 2013, 2013, 2010, 2010)
Sébastien Faure defined anarchism as `the negation of the principle of Authority'
Anarchist's reject authority. More power leads to corruption as people tend to abuse their power. `Power
tends to corrupt...' Lord Acton..To be in authority is to acquire an appetite for prestige, control and
eventually domination. Authority therefore gives rise to a `psychology of power', based on a pattern of
`dominance and submission'...Unequal distribution of knowledge in society.…read more


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