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On what grounds have liberals believed in the fragmentation of government power (2014, 2010, Spec)

Liberals fear power as human beings are self seeking creatures. Egoism + power = corruption. People
seek to use it for their own benefit. Lord Acton, `Power tend to' Despotic regimes in the the…

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On what grounds have liberals believed in constitutionalism (2013, 2011)

Constitutionalism refers to a set of political values and aspirations that reflect the desire to protect liberty
through the establishment of internal and external checks on government power. Typically expressed in
constitutional provisions that establish this goal, notably a…

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Distinguish between positive and negative freedom (2015, 2012, 2011)

Although the value of liberty is hardly contested in different strands of liberalism, its meaning is sometimes
debated. Berlin (1958) differentiated between positive and negative liberty. Classical liberals have essentially
focused on negative liberty whilst modern liberals have moved their…

Page 4

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On what grounds have modern liberals defended the principle of social welfare? (2014)

Linked to the core value of justice. Fair distribution of rewards and punishments, giving each that which he is
due. Justice only achievable through equality and inequality denies justice. `Injustice anywhere is a threat to

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On what grounds have socialists believed in class conflict (

Marxist and revolutionary socialism ­ society is understood in terms of class and class interest
revolutionary socialists seek a state organized exclusively in the interests of the working class Marxist seek
an ultimately classless society...Conflicts of interests cannot be…

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On what grounds have socialists believed in a positive view of human nature (

Human nature is plastic and communal. Molded by experiences + circumstances of social life. Believe
humans have high capacity for social + personal development. Links to the core value of community which
is a collectivist…

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Why have some socialists advocated revolution rather than reform (

Revolutionary socialism had a great deal of appeal for early socialists. Early industrialisation had caused
great immiseration, grinding poverty and widespread unemployment. There was a widespread view that
capitalism was a system of naked exploitation and oppression.

Revolution is…

Page 8

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Distinguish between fundamentalist socialism and revisionist socialism & Explain the key ideas associated
with revisionist socialism (2011) (2013)

In the modern era, revisionism can refer to any moderate socialist movements that make compromises with a
class analysis of society and with the revolutionary road to socialism.

All Marxists share…

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Explain the link between anarchism and collectivism (2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010)

Based on socialist belief in collectivism Humans are essentially social beings with the capacity to
cooperate. Theorist: Peter Kropotkin (Mutual Aid a factor of Evolution). Kropotkin studied animals in Siberia
and came to the conclusion that most…

Page 10

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Explain the link between anarchism and antistatism ( 2013, 2013, 2010, 2010)

Sébastien Faure defined anarchism as `the negation of the principle of Authority'

Anarchist's reject authority. More power leads to corruption as people tend to abuse their power. `Power
tends to corrupt...' Lord Acton..To be in authority is…


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