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Types of investigation

Key

Black= description, Red= example, Orange= strengths, Green= weaknesses

Laboratory experiment

2 groups of participants are compared to see if there is a difference
between the 2 groups. The independent variable is altered directly by the
experimenter (to form 2 groups). All other extraneous variables are tightly…

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Natural experiment

2 groups of participants are compared to see if there is a difference
between the 2 groups. The independent variable is NOT altered directly by
the experimenter (to form 2 groups). Some extraneous variables are
already allocated to the 2 groups. The experimenter does not decide who
does…

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There is little control of extraneous variables in naturalistic observations
therefore we can't establish cause and effect relationships.
There may be ethical issues connected to when it's appropriate to watch
people, especially covert observations.

Self report techniques-questionnaires

Information about ideas and opinions can be collected from 4 main types of…

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Allows investigation of areas that in which an experiment would be
unethical.
They normally have high levels of ecological validity because they actually
happened.
Low population validity and so we can't generalise finding to other cases.
Often it's hard to establish what the cause of behaviour is as there is…

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