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Slide 1

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OCR: Energetics, Equilibrium and Elements

Slide 2

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Physical Properties
A transition metal is a d block element that
has a partially filled d-subshell of electrons.
All transition metals have high melting
points ­ above 1000°C
This is due to strong metallic bonding as
both the 3d and 4s subshell electrons are
available for delocalisation…read more

Slide 3

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Electron Configurations
In the neutral transition metal atoms, the 4s
subshell is at a lower energy state and so is
filled first
NB ­ Cr and Cu are anomalous because their
4s subshell only contains 1 electron
When the elements form positive ions, the
electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus.
This is particularly strong in the 3d subshell
and causes 3d to become a lower energy state
than 4s
The result of this is that 4s electrons are
always lost first!…read more

Slide 4

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Chemical Properties
There are four distinctive properties of
transition metals:
1. They are good catalysts
2. They are coloured compounds
3. They can exist in different oxidation states
in compounds
4. They form complex ions…read more

Slide 5

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1. Catalysts
They are good catalysts because of their
variable oxidation states
This means they may allow an alternative
reaction pathway with a lower activation
They can also act as solid catalysts
because of their partially filled d subshells,
which allow dative bonds between
reactants and the transition metal surface…read more

Slide 6

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1. Catalysts
Transition metals work as catalysts via
three steps:
1. Adsorption ­ weak dative bonds form
between reactant molecules and transition
metal surfaces therefore weakening the
molecular bonds of the reactant
2. Reaction ­ this occurs faster because the
activation energy has been lowered due to
the partially broken molecular bonds
3. Desorption ­ weak dative bonds break…read more

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Slide 10

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Former Member


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