OCR Chemistry definitions - Module 5

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Rate of reaction
The change in concentration of a reactant or a product in a given time
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Order
The power to which the concentration of a reactant is raised in the rate equation
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Overall order
The sum of the individual orders of reactants in the rate equation
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Rate constant
The constant that links the rate of reaction with the concentrations of the reactants raised to the powers of their orders in the rate equation
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Half-life
The time taken for the concentration on a reactant to decrease by half
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Rate-determining step
The slowest step in a multi-step reaction
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Mole fraction
The same as its proportion by volume to the total volume of gases in a gas mixture
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Partial pressure
The contribution that the gas makes towards the total pressure
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Homogenous equilibria
All equilibrium species have the same state or phase
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Heterogenous equilibria
Equilibrium species have different states or phases
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Bronsted-Lowry acid
A proton donor
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Bronsted-Lowry base
A proton acceptor
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Buffer solution
A system that minimises pH changes on addition of small amounts of an acid or a base
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Lattice enthalpy
The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of ionic compound from its gaseous ions under standard conditions
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Standard enthalpy change of atomisation
The enthalpy change that takes place for the formation of one mole of gaseous atoms from the element in its standard state under standard conditions
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First electron affinity
The enthalpy change that takes place when one electron is added to each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1- ions
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Enthalpy change of solution
The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements under standard conditions, with all reactants and products in their standard states
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Enthalpy change of hydration
The enthalpy change that accompanies the dissolving of gaseous ions in water to form one mole of aqueous ions
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Entropy
A measure of the dispersal of energy in a system
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Oxidising agent
A species that takes electrons from the species being oxidised. Is itself reduced
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Reducing agent
A species that adds electrons to the species being reduced. Is itself oxidised
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Standard electrode potential
The emf of a half-cell connected to a standard hydrogen half-cell under standard conditions (298K, 100kPa, 1 moldm-3 solutions
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Transition element
D-block elements that form at least one ion with a partially filled d-orbital
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Ligand
A molecule or ion with a lone pair of electrons that forms a dative covalent bond with a transition metal ion
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Complex ion
Formed when one or more molecules or negatively charged ions possessing a lone pair of electrons bonds to a central metal ion
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Coordination number
The number of atoms or ions surrounding a central atom in a complex
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Card 2

Front

Order

Back

The power to which the concentration of a reactant is raised in the rate equation

Card 3

Front

Overall order

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Rate constant

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Half-life

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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