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Crime occurs when..
· Not everyone is equally socialized into social norms and values
· Diversity of lifestyles and subcultures
· Crime has four key characteristics; Inevitable, Universal, Relative and Functional
· Inevitable ­ Crime will always exists but it can be reduced
· Universal ­ Crime exists in every society
· Relative ­ Criminal behaviour varies from society to society; a social construct
· Functional - limited amount of crime benefits society
· When someone is punishment, it reinforces norms and values and maintains boundaries
· Crime is needed to bring about social change and adaptation e.g. Rose Parks
· Social cohesion, when horrific crimes are committed society comes together e.g. 9/11…read more

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Kingsley Davis
· Crime acts as a safety valves that releases pressure
· E.g. Prostitution being a crime which prevents the family been threatened by providing
sexual outlets
Ned Polsky
· Pornography safely channels desires away from alternatives e.g. Adultery
Albert Cohen
· Deviances act as a warning that policies aren't working and that change must occur…read more

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Some crimes have no benefit to society e.g. Child abuse
Fails to explain why happens, only the purpose it serves
Ignores the victims and how crime benefits them
Many of the arguments lack temporal validity
Pornography and prostitution can increase sexual crimes
Use of prostitutes only focuses on the male viewpoint
Use of secondary data, making the data to fit the theory…read more

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Structural factors: There are unequal
chances in society
MERTON'S STRAIN Cultural factors: Emphasis of achieving
the goals is stronger than the emphasis
of using legitimate means
· There exists a social desirable goal, if people can't achieve this they resort to other means
· Strain occurs when there is an emphasis on the gaols as opposed to the means of
achieving it
· There are five way to respond to strain
· Conformity - Attempting to achieve the goal through legitimate means
· Innovation ­ Use of illegitimate means
· Ritualism ­ Giving up on achieving the goal but adopting acceptable means of behaviour
· Retreatism ­ reject the goal and mainstream society
· Rebellion ­ Rejecting the goal and replacing it with a new one to bring about a revolution
e.g. Terrorism…read more

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Successfully li8nked strain in the structure of society to crime
Ideas work well in explaining crimes that make a financial profit or property crimes
Messner and Rosenheld ­ Crime rate is so high in America because of the value society
places on material wealth
Explains why there is more crime in the lower classes
Doesn't account for upper class crime
Not all of the lower class are deviant
Valier - Assumes there is a value consensus in the desired social goal
Cannot account for crimes such as violence and vandalism
Takes official crime statistics at face value which can lead to a generalisation
Marxists ­ it ignores the power of the ruling class to make and enforce laws…read more

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