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INTRO TO SUBCULTURAL THEORIES
· Subcultural theories think people committing crime have
different values from the law abiding population.
· The people committing crime share some mainstream values
but have changed some values so that their deviant
behaviour is justified
· This is why they're called subcultures ­ because they're within
a culture and share most values but have a few values that
differ
· Whyte (1943) : showed how deviant groups had clear norms
and values justifying their behaviour…read more

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HOW SUBCULTURES FORM
The group rejects
Society prevents societies values
certain groups and develops These alternative
from succeeding. alternative values. values may justify
This causes a This group is crime
strain known as a
subculture…read more

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INTRO TO STRAIN THEORIES
· Strain theories believe people commit crime because
they're in a position where they can't conform to
societies values and beliefs…read more

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STRAIN THEORY: MERTON (1938)
· Merton tried to explain deviance within a functionalist
framework
Crime occurs b/c there's a strain between society's socially accepted goals
and the means of obtaining them
All societies set goals and provide approved ways of achieving them.
Goals differ according to the individuals position in society
Lower position = more restricted goals
This system works if the majority can achieve their goals
BUT when they can't ­ Anomie occurs…read more

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STRAIN THEORY: MERTON (1938)
There are 5 potential forms of strain between socially accepted
goals and the means of obtaining them
1. conformity
Where someone still tries to achieve the socially accepted goals through the
accepted means despite there only being a small chance of success
2. Innovation 3. RITUALISM
Where someone still tries to
achieve the socially Where the individual uses the accepted means
accepted goals through but has lost the goal
different means (usually
criminal) 4. Retreatism
Where someone rejects the socially
approved goals and means
(drug/alcohol dependent individuals
5. Rebellion fit under this
The socially approved goals
and means are rejected and
substituted…read more

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