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What are they?
Token economy programmes; based on operant
conditioning principals, using rewards as
Aim is to reward good behaviour and to ignore
unwanted behaviour.…read more

Slide 3

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Where/how are they used?
TEPs are used in prisons, mental health units and schools.
The aim is to obtain the desired behaviour via a system of rewards:
Tokens act as rewards & used to purchase something that's desired.
Token- part of therapy.
People `paid' in tokens as rewards for acting in a desired way- economy
part of therapy.
It's a programme because there has to be a plan; PP's need to be clear
what's rewarded & by how much each time.…read more

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Used for children with attention disorders, e.g. ADHD.
Tokens can be chips/stars/points.
The child can then exchange chip for something they
want- Christophersen and VanSkoyoc, 2006.…read more

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The steps for using TEPs
1. Identify the behaviour that has to be changed, which must be outlined
clearly and understood clearly by everyone taking part in programme.
Researcher should be positive. Positive behaviour-desired, not absence of
negative behaviour. Behaviour must also be observable; so everyone is clear
when it occurs & what's to be rewarded.
2. Select tokens & decide what they can be exchanged for.
3. Tokens/points should `buy' significant rewards; meaningful & worthwhile to
the PP. Otherwise there will be no motivation to perform desired behaviour.
4. Set goals that are achievable. Percentage improvement needs to be clear to
5. Explain the whole programme to PP concerned. Programme must be clear so
they know what the tokens are for & can repeat the behaviour to gain more
tokens. If not clear; desired behaviour/goal isn't likely to work.…read more

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6. PP's need feedback on their progress & guidance if they're
not achieving tokens. Element of punishment e.g. response
cost- tokens withheld/taken away for undesired behaviour.
7. Provide the reward. Tokens/points need to be exchanged
for rewards. If no tokens are earned; no fuss should be
made about not getting any, just diplomatically informed.
No critical comments should be made.
8. Reviewing the programme. Praise for PPs participating in
programme. If there's no further progress, an earlier goal
can be returned to.
9.…read more

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