Timeline of Roman Republic & Cicero 80-40BC

This is a complete, 20 page long very detailed timeline of Cicero's life and the Roman Republic from 80-40BC

Contains every important political event, political relationships and key policies etc

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Cicero Timeline
Tribunate: made dead end job, no future office. Neutralised trouble
System of Standing Courts: juries to come from Senate and presided
over by Praetor
Power of Provincial Governors: limited power only one year, courts set
up to try power abuse by ex-governors, people's popular assemblies no
longer jurors
Reconstitution of the Senate: made it an elected body, future Quaestors
become members of the Senate, only gain power through elections,
promoted three hundred equestrians (Senate doubles)
Lex Annalis: forced magistrates to conform to Lexus Honorum, minimum
ages set for office, ten years between holding office powers
Just after Sullan prosciptions
Chrysogonus was bribed to proscript Sextus Roscius Senior
Cicero unwillingly undertook the defence of his son, Sextus Roscius ­
on trial for bribing Chrysogonus & his father's murder
Pro Roscio is speech Cicero gave in Sextus Junior's defence (Qui Bono)
Upon Sextus Senior's death his estate was confiscated - Chrysogonus
split it with Sextus' cousins, Capito & Magnus (Sextus Junior lost out)
Cicero won the case to Sulla's disapproval
Trial was launch pad for Cicero's career ­ he spoke so whole crowd could
understand - after he travelled to Greece & Rhodes to polish oratory
Lepidus: became Consul in 78, ran anti-Sullan campaign including
renewing sales of subsidised corn, land reform, recall of Marian exiles
and restoration of Tribune power ­ Pompey supported him
Lepidus: fell out with Catulus (co-Consul) after elections, couldn't
change Sulla's reforms but attacked them whenever possible, he secured
province of Gaul for 78BC (the following year)
SULLA DIED ­ alcohol abuse
Cicero returns from Greece & Rhodes
Lepidus was rumoured to raise an army to march on Rome
Senate's response: to counteract army they passed SCU (decides his
death), he was declared a public enemy and attacked, fled to Sardinia
and Senate gave Pompey the military command against him
Senate gave another special military command to Pompey though he was
not a Senate member for having a very successful guerrila campaign and
being an excellent soldier

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Pompey was duly sent to Spain to deal with Sertorius, they fought and
Sertorius won twice until his murder by Perperna in 72BC
Cornelius Cotta (Consul) rescinded Sullan law which stopped Tribunes
running for further office ­ made Tribunate useful path for young
Cicero stood for election as junior magistrate and won Quaestorship
Sent to Sicily as provincial governor:
Sorted out Official's corruption over grain
Resolved grain supply crisis ­ stopped worst abuses of farmers/land
Gained trust & popularity of locals
Defended many…read more

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Pompey's inexperience meant he couldn't use
Consulship fully
Pompey refused governorship at end of
Consulship and retired to `private life'
Cicero elected as Aedile ­ responsible for
Games & Food Supply (maintained by
Sicilian allies) = popularity with plebs
Verres returned from three year governorship in Sicily ­ Sicilians
wanted Rome to try him for provincial corruption & sought Pompey's
Hortensius defended Verres, Cicero was prosecution
Verres = Optimates
Hortensius tried to delay trial until New Year when he would be…read more

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Cicero joined support of Pompey (commands were effective way of
utilising Pompey's talents while he remained Senate-loyal)
Cicero needed Pompey's support for his election as Praetor & Pompey
wanted Cicero's oratorical talents to secure the command
Using Pompey, Cicero was elected Praetor (LETTER TO ATTICUS)
Manilius was Tribune & proposed Bill giving Pompey the command
Cicero spoke forcefully in favour of the Bill - citing public interest
Cicero's speech = Pro Lege Manilia
Pompey got second command and was away for three years ­…read more

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Cicero declared himself the true People's Populares and Labienus was
false Populares
Caesar came up with solution of `impasse' & flag was lowered on
Janiculum Hill, trial was suspended and never resumed
It appeared that Caesar didn't want a conviction or an acquittal
Rabirius was just unfortunately caught in an Optimates/Populares fight
Optimates technically won ­ no prosecution, the Populares made the
point of not tolerating another SCU being used to block reform & to
justify the murder of another reforming Tribune

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Cicero as Consul, sent two armies after Catiline in the North, led by
Hybrida ­ Catiline refused to flee & was killed alongside rebels
Cicero spent rest of his lift justifying his actions & prepared
Consul-departing speech declaring himself Saviour of the Republic but
Nepo stopped him by saying that with Roman blood on his hands, he had
no right to speak
Turning point in Cicero's career ­ previously unrivalled success now
Winning Consulship = great triumph, Cicero believed he had…read more

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Pompey, Crassus & Caesar
Pompey wanted second Consulship - ineligible
Deal worked with Senate - Piso (Pompey's legate) could stand as Consul
Important concession - Pompey vulnerable to attack from enemies in
court - had dismissed much of army but refused to hand over powers of
Imperium until he felt safe (unable to lay down powers until celebrated
triumph in villa outside city: compromise suited both sides)
Optimates induced Pompey to stand legions down - no Sulla repeat
Caesar left city…read more

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Crassus' deal for clients in Asia - Equite tax collectors; Optimates
Caesar, Pompey & Crassus agreed `amicitia'; FIRST TRIUMVIRATE ­
hope Cicero would work for them but he declined
Senate powerless against `three headed monster' ­ powerful teamwork
`Amicitia' = Senate's making ­ tried to block Caesar's ambitions & any
reform (land)
Optimates denied Pompey's future aims ­ Cato refused marriage
Crassus decided to back Caesar before Pompey even returned from East
Triumvirate shared no common interests but Senate's obstinacy &
Optimates &…read more

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Caesar for his 59BC
actions ­ Triumvirs become increasingly
annoyed and look for ways to remove Cato
Optimates Praetors wanted to engineer
prosecution against Caesar ­ C responded by
haranguing all 10 Tribunes & made them
swear oath not to prosecute him while in
Clodius proposed new Bill to annexe Cyprus from Rome and named Cato
for Governorship ­ Cato couldn't refuse or accuse Triumvirs of illegality
Clodius' agenda: expanded grain dole ­ brought immediate dividends,
legalised special `trade guilds'…read more

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Cicero returned and rebuilt his career & life, made speech thanking
supporters in Senate, especially Pompey (also ridiculed Piso & Gabinius
for failure to control Clodius) Clodius & gangs were still a problem
Triumvirs reminded Cicero of their power, he should support them
(they were solely responsible for his recall and he needed their
Cicero pressured to sort food crisis & propose 3rd special commission for
Pompey ­ 3 years, money, ships + special powers
Cicero detected strains between the Triumvirs; Optimates regret
alienating…read more



Thank you so much for this. A great help :)

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