peace and war: international relations. sect; 4, 5 and 6

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Cold war development
Tehran conference 1943
Britain and the USA would open a second front
Yalta conference 1945
Roosevelt and Churchill agree to the establishment of a communist government in Poland
Provide the USSR a `sphere of influence'
Potsdam conference 1945
Roosevelt was no longer the US president and was replaced by Harry S Truman
The distance between the USSR and the USA grew
Truman told Stalin of the A-bomb
Novikov 1946
Generated fear amongst the people especially Stalin
Long telegram 1946
Was sent by the US ambassador to the USSR to the USA
Similar to the Novikov telegram
Truman doctrine 1947
Outlined the responsibility of America to fight for liberty wherever it was threatened.
This made the hostility public
Marshall Plan 1947
Based on strategies to prevent communism :
Containment
Marshall aid ­ to make capitalism seem more profitable and desirable
Cominform 1947
To extend Stalin's control
To ensure the loyalty of the Eastern Europe government
Consolidated the power of the USSR through Eastern Europe by stamping out opposition
Effects:
o 5% of the Hungarian population was in prison by 1953
o 2 million French workers sympathetic to the communist went on strike, demanding the
rejection of Marshall aid

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Comecon 1949
Encouraged economic development of Eastern Europe
To prevent trade with Western Europe and the USA.…read more

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The three cold war crises
Berlin crisis
1958 Khrushchev suggests that the four
occupying powers leave Berlin and it
should be neutral
1958 Khrushchev gave western troops 6
months to leave berlin
Sept. 1959 President Eisenhower made a speech
suggesting that the USA would
withdraw
5th May 1960 U2 spy plane was shot down
14th May 1960 Paris summit- Khrushchev storms out
June 1961 Vienna summit- Kennedy refused to
Khrushchev's demands to withdraw
13th Aug.…read more

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Medium term "winds of change" students and popular
protests.…read more

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NUTS ­ Nuclear Utilization Treaty Selection
Helsinki conference 1975
Security ­ countries talked about European frontiers ( USSR accepting the existence of West
Germany.
Cooperation ­ call for a closer economic, scientific and cultural links
Human rights ­ each signatory agreed to respect human rights and basic freedom ( thought,
speech, religion and freedom from unfair arrest)
Second cold war
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Name Who What Why
Brezhnev Soviet leader Helped Karmal get He thought that Amin was
rid of Amin in Dec.…read more

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Made nuclear war likely again
Second détente
Geneva summit 1985
Gorbachev wanted Reagan to drop the SDI
Gorbachev replaced the anti-détente foreign minister with pro- détente Eduard
Shevardnadze
Reagan and Gorbachev didn't reach an agreement but agreed to meet again
Reykjavik 1986
Reagan wouldn't drop the SDI but offered to scrap ballistics nuclear missiles
Gorbachev accepted as he saw that Reagan could not back down SDI and that the weapons
didn't make the soviet safer and just drained the economy
INF treaty 1987
Both parties…read more

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