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Thermal physics
Energy transfer happens when:

One object does work on the other one
Energy transfer due to a temperature difference

Internal energy of object changes as result of:

Heat/energy transfer by radiation
Work done by force or electricity on/ by object

If internal energy constant, either:

No heat/ energy…

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Fixed points: standard
degrees of hotness which
can be accurately

Celsius scale

ICE POINT ­ 0' ­ pure melting ice
STEAM POINT ­ 100' ­ steam at standard atmospheric pressure

Absolute scale

ABSOLUTE ZERO ­ 0K ­lowest possible temp.
TRIPLE POINT OF WATER ­ 273.16K - temp which ice…

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The temperature rise of an object when it's heated depends on:

Amount of energy supplied to it
Substance(s) from which object made

Q = M C T

Inversion tube experiment

GPE internal energy when it hits bottom. Little spheres in tube carry

Temp measured initially and after n…

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Electrical energy supplied: IVt

M C T = I V T


known mass in insulated calorimeter.

Energy supplied = IVt

Energy needed to heat liquid:

Q = m1c1T

Energy needed to heat calorimeter:

Q = m(cal)c(cal)T

Assuming no heat loss:

I V T = (M 1C 1T )…

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The three physical states of a substance have different physical properties:

Density of gas much less than liquid or solid because liquid/solid molecules compact and in
contact with each other. Molecules of gas separated by large distances.
Solids cant flow because there atoms are locked together by strong force bonds…

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Q = ml

Where l is latent hear of fusion/ vaporisation ( Jkg^-1)


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