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Durkheim- crime had 4 key characteristics: CRITISCISMS OF MERTON
·Inevitable- crime will always exist. -He only explains crimes that make a financial
·Universal- exists in every society.
Messner and Rosenheld (1994)Crime rate is high
·Relative- what is seen as criminal varies in
because of the value of material wealth in society.
different societies.
If a country promotes other values e.g. civic
·Functional- a limited amount of C+D can be responsibility crime is lower. In Japan children are
beneficial. taught to respect one another and the School.
Merton `Strain Theory' ­ argued many types of Functionalists take
crime exists because society shares the same official statistics on
American Dream. A strain exists between goals and crime as face value.
ambitions. 5 different ways to respond:
·Conformity- response of majority (getting
·Innovation- Legal and illegal forms (financial profit
such as burglary)
·Ritualism- deviant not criminal (give up on dream)
·Retreatism- give up (turn to drink/drugs)
·Rebellion- want to replace the American Dream
(Al-Qaeda)…read more

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Cohen (1955) argued delinquent behaviour was most likely Korem (1994) examined MC gangs, conducted
to develop amongst WC boys doing badly at school. research over 7 years in the UK, US and other
Achieving success academically would be difficult.
countries. Argued MC boys are forming gangs
Cloward and Ohlin (1961) WC boys belong to 3 because of family problems e.g. divorce.
subcultures, criminal ­ found in stable WC areas, making
financial profit. Conflict- antisocial and aggressive
behaviour. Retreatist- focus on alcohol/drugs. FEMALE GANG
Miller (1962) WC boys get into trouble with the police Thrasher ­ researched 1300 gangs in the US in the
because they have a different set of norms and values.
Focal concerns:
20s and found only 6 female gangs. He believed
women had a limited role in gangs, and they exist
·Trouble- accepting life involves violence.
to serve the male members.
·Toughness- `real men' fight, drink and womanise.
·Excitement- always having `a laff'. CRITICISMS
WC boys don't intend to break the law, but the focal -Based on validity of official
concerns they hold it is inevitable.
- Start with the belief that most
Nightingale (1993)- studied young black gangs in an inner crime is committed by young WC
city area of Philadelphia. Gang members want to achieve the
American Dream of having the latest consumer goods
reinforced by TV. Matza (1964) argued research
UK GANGS into gangs was too deterministic.
The studies imply that once you
Bennett and Holloway (2004) studied data from interviews
with almost 5,000 arrestees and found 15% had current or join a gang you cant escape.
past experience with a gang.…read more

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Sometimes called urban criminology, looks CRITICISMS BRITISH STUDIES
at the relationship between patterns of -Based on the face value Baldwin and Bottoms (1976) examined
crime and where people live, work and of off stats. the process of `tipping'. Occurs when an
spend their leisure.
Owen Gill (1977) area is seen as going down hill, may be
examined Luke Street in because of council policies of putting badly
Shaw and McKay (1930s) plotted the behaved families in the same area. Law
Liverpool. The area was
address of people who had committed abiding and respectable families leave as
used as a dumping ground
crimes in the city. The results divided into soon as possible and the friends/relatives of
by the council. He argued
concentric zones (series of circles within one the people who aren't law abiding move in.
that it developed a bad
big circle), each zone had different levels of rep so it was hard to find Wilson and Kelling (1982) if a single window
crime. Zone 2 was the City Centre and had a job. The police targeted is broken in an abandoned house, if left
the highest number of crimes the further the area leading to further unamended other windows will get broken
from the city the crimes decreased. Zone 2 resentment. The mass and the area will be seen as going downhill.
was a zone or transition (high pop turnover) media played a negative
causing social disorganisation. The zone role and influenced the
wasn't as stable as others and had a little police. Developed into a
sense of community. bad area because of
Sutherland and Cressey (1974)
introduced the concept of differential
association. Everyone comes into contact Nocturnal Economy
with different people. Some will be law-
Hobbs and Lister (2000)
abiding some wont. The more time you
refer to the growth of
spend with people who aren't law abiding
pubs and clubs in cities.
the more likely you are to become the same.
Thousands of drunk
The implification is that there is more crime
teenagers in the early
in the inner city areas because there are
hours of Friday and Privatisation of public spaces has moved
more people with criminal attitudes.
Saturday will lead to teenagers to estates where they are more
- Suggests people do not exercise free-will. increased crime. likely to come into contact with the Police.…read more

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Argue that the vast majority of the population Chambliss
have broken the law in some way. They do not Saints and Roughnecks (1973) two groups of boys who went to the
accept off stats as facts. They are concerned same American High School. The Saints were 8 MC delinquents and the
with how some people are labelled as
Roughnecks were 6 WC delinquents. Despite committing the same acts
the saints were never seen as delinquents, and rarely came into contact
with the police because their crim behaviour took place outside of town.
Becker The roughnecks were seen as delinquent because most of their
behaviour took place in the local area. The saints were able to use their
He believed deviance only exists because cultural capital when they came into contact with the police.
those with power in society decide what is
deviant. Some people are better at negotiating
with the police because they can use their CRITICISMS
cultural capital. They have been accused of having to much sympathy for the criminals.
Introduced the Master label and the Deviant They do not focus enough on why people break the law in the first
career. The master label takes precedence a place. They are too deterministic and imply once labelled deviancy is
negative label e.g. prostitute/junkie. Those inevitable.
with the master label will be treated negatively
and a self-fulfilling prophecy may occur if the Braithwaite (1989) examined the process
individual internalises or accepts the label. of labelling leading to a deviant career.
He argued shaming was an important
issue to consider where disapproval of
offenders is expressed.
Young (1971) studied `hippie' marijuana ·Disintegrative shaming- effect discussed
user. He argued that initially it was only a by labelling theory, making it more likely
minor offence. But overtime the negative label for them to join a criminal subculture.
given by the police made the hippies become
increasingly rejected from society. They had ·Reintegrative- the offender experiences
accepted their master label, and the actions of the dissaproval and is given another
the police had created more crime. DEVIANCY chance.

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Argue that capitalism is a crime and it causes Slapper and Tombs (1999) corporate crime should be defined as
crime. They believe capitalism should be seen law-breaking committed by or for corporations which interests the
as a crime because it is an economic system corporations. Argue there are two types of corporate crime; financial
based on exploitation of the many by the few. and negligence.
Capitalism causes crime because it is based on
competition. We are socialised from an early FINANCIAL NEGLIGENCE
age into these values. They believe it needs to
Slapper and Tombs (1999) Business will try to max profit
be replaced by communism (everything in
examined the miss selling of by minimising health&safety.
society is owned by every member of society
pensions in the UK. Leading One strategy is to locate to the
with complete equality).
pension providers had provided developing world where H&S
illegal and misleading advice, regulations are less inforced. E.
Box (1981) highlihted the success of people invested in inappropriate g the escape of posinous Gas
capitalist organisations in convincing the personal pensions leading to from a chemical plant in India,
public, politicans and media that corporate financial loss. more than 3000 people were
crime is less serious and less harmful. Box killed and many injured.
called it `Mystification' and it explains why few
prosecutions are filed against capitalists.
Official statistics underestimate the extent of
white-collar crime, creating the false view that -Assume crime is caused by capitalism but crime exists in communist
crime is committed by the WC. countries such as Russia and China.
-Despite the cost of financial crimes people are more concerned with
mundane crimes such as burglary and car theft.
-If capitalism causes crime then the greatest amount of crime should
be committed by the poorest e.g the elderly.…read more

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