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Lysozyme action: An enzyme found in tears, sweat and the nose destroys bacteria by breaking down the bacterial cell walls.

Inflammation: Damaged white blood cells release histamines that cause arterioles to dilate and capillaries to become more
permeable. Blood flow to the area increases and plasma,…

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Gut flora: These harmless species of bacteria competitively exclude pathogenic bacteria, competing wit the pathogens for food
and space. The bacteria also secrete chemicals such as lactic acid that are useful in the defence against pathogens.


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