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The Multi Store Model of Memory
Proposes that memory is made of 3 stores; sensory, short term, long terms.
Differ in terms of Duration, Capacity, and Encoding.
Sense store holds information constantly coming in from environment, e.g. Visual, Auditory,
If not paid attention to lost from sense store.
If paid attention to information is passes into STM.
STM according to Miller has a capacity of 7+/-2 bits of information.
Peterson and Peterson concluded that without rehearsal, very little information can stay in
STM for longer than about 18 seconds.
Baddeley found that STM mainly encodes acoustically.
If maintenance rehearsal takes place, information remains in STM or forgotten through
decay or displacement.
Elaborative rehearsal transfers information to LTM.
LTM has an unlimited capacity.
According to Bahrick who studied VLTMs, it is theoretically permanent.
Baddeley found that LTM mainly encodes semantically.
Information can be retrieved from the LTM and used in STM when needed, and can be
forgotten through Decay or Displacement.
Clinical amnesiacs provide evidence.
Based on real life people, ecologically valid, therefore can be applied to everyday
HM underwent brain surgery to cure severe epilepsy resulted in inability to
transfer information from STM to LTM; could not form new LTMs, supporting concept
that there are separate stores.
Other evidence comes from Medical Technology.
MRI scans which show blood flow in different brain areas for different memory
tasks associated with STM and LTM, therefore, showing that there are separate
stores in memory.
Empirical Research also provides evidence for the model.
Glanzer and Cunitz Primacy-Recency effect.
Found that participants who were asked to recall lists of words, they tend to
remember the first and last few words of the list better than those in the middle.
Supports idea that there are separate stores, as the first few words may have been
rehearsed and transferred to LTM, whilst the last few words remain in STM.
When rehearsal for the Primary effect is prevented by an interference task, the
effect disappears as the model predicts.
Model is oversimplified.
Assumes there is only one STM and one LTM.
Disapproved by evidence from brain damaged patients, suggesting several
different STM stores.
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Other studies such as Milner's case study of HM show several different LTMs e.g.
Procedural, Semantic, Episodic memory.
A lot of supporting evidence for the model are lab experiments.
Material used for participants to remember (such as nonsense trigrams, strings of
digits and numbers etc.) are unlike information we have to remember in everyday
Lacks ecological validity
Therefore results cannot necessarily be applied to everyday life.…read more