The Executvie

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  • Created by: Liv Scott
  • Created on: 30-04-15 08:08
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President (executive)
P.O.T.U.S- President of the United States
Article 2 ­ describes power of the present & limitations
Neustadt: Power to persuade- separation of powers
Sponsors bills
o The office of the president is one of inherent weakness
o Constitution limits presidents powers on domestic policy
Often bifurcated
Formal/enumerated powers (constitutional)
1. Chief executive- manages the govn't
Includes patronage & pardon
Spoils system
Spoils of war- Obama 2500 jobs
2. Commander in chief
3. Chief diplomat- can use `executive agreements'
Implied/informal powers
1. Chief legislator- most legislation comes from the white house
o Can use veto, but sign of weakness
2. World leader- since WW2
o Obama has backed away from this
3. Party leader- no real national leader
o But see Clinton & democrat congress over healthcare (1994)
4. Head of state- ceremonial role
Expectations of US citizens in time of crisis
Only institution capable of acting quickly in crisis
Only nationally elected politician
Role of the president has grown since 1930's because:
FDR- New deal ­ executive grew
WW2- foreign policy- east/west cold war ­ Superpower
Growth of govn't responsibility
Carter: education & energy depts.
G.W. Bush: Homeland security
Limitations on power
Nixon-imperial president but
In early 1970s congress resurgent
o 1972 ­ Case act ­ limited the president's power to use executive
agreements ­ must report them to congress
o 1973- War powers act- limited deployment of troop without congress ­
vetoed by president, but congressional override
o 1974- budget impoundment act- cannot vire budget
Defeat legislative proposals
Exercise oversight
Refuse to fund proposals

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Budget rejected in 2014
Veto override
Supreme Court
Strike down (e.g. Truman & Steel Mills)
o Hamden Vs. Rumsfeld- 2006
Detention without trial unconstitutional
o Clinton line item veto (picking which bits of the bill to allow & which bits
to veto)
Public opinion
Ratings are important ­lame duck in last 2yrs, often bifurcated
How does a president achieve policy goals?
Separated…read more

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President Strong Weak
JFK Cuban missile crisis -
Johnson Vietnam & Civil Rights -
Nixon China ­ Trade relations Watergate
Ford - Budgets & taxation
Carter Arab Israeli Process Energy crisis
Regan Cold War Budget deficit
Bush (snr) Golf war Recession
Clinton Economy (stupid) Impeachment
Bush 9/11 Hurricane Katarina/2008
crash/Iraq latterly
Obama Bin Laden? Guantanamo?
Show bifurcated president
Bush- imperial?
After 9/11 he created the idea of a `unitary executive' congress ideologically
cohesive- 2000-2006 republican
Patriot act- surveillance (unconstitutional?)
Guantanamo bay (Hadan V Rumsfelt/Hamdi V…read more

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Often a roving ambassador for us e.g. Joe Biden
diplomatic/ceremonial role
o Sometimes given specific projects e.g. Gore. Clinton's "reinventing
govn't" programme
o Clinton's- "The era of big govn't is over"
o Outsider or inexperienced insider presidents choose insider V.P.s-
Cheney Ex-chief of staff of Whitehouse "If Cheney was
assassinated who would become president?"
o Obama- 4yrs in the senate, Biden in senate since 1975
2. The cabinet
o A body of advisers
o Manage the executive depts.…read more

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Hilary Clinton- presidential rival- democrat
o Bipartisanship
Varies ­ circumstances
May be important to an outsider
o E.g. Bush- Cheny & Rice
o But not important to Kennedy
Can't always trust the cabinet or federal depts.
1. Going native
o Individual in the executive won over by the agency they should
regulate (agency capture)
2.…read more

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Even some mid-level (schedule C) appointments are political!
4 categories:
1. Executive depts.- 15 of them- originally state dept., war & treasury
o Cabinet secretaries manage these
o Two tiers- top tier ­ state dept. defence, treasury, justice
2. Executive agencies
o Big budgets
o Report to president
o E.g. CIA & NASA
3. Independent regulatory commissions (IRC)
o E.g. airlines & railways
4. Govn't corporations
o E.g.…read more

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