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President (executive)
P.O.T.U.S- President of the United States

Article 2 ­ describes power of the present & limitations
Neustadt: Power to persuade- separation of powers
Sponsors bills
o The office of the president is one of inherent weakness
o Constitution limits presidents powers on domestic policy
Often bifurcated

Formal/enumerated powers…

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o Budget rejected in 2014
Veto override
Supreme Court
Strike down (e.g. Truman & Steel Mills)
o Hamden Vs. Rumsfeld- 2006
Detention without trial unconstitutional
o Clinton line item veto (picking which bits of the bill to allow & which bits
to veto)
Public opinion
Ratings are important ­lame…

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President Strong Weak
JFK Cuban missile crisis -
Johnson Vietnam & Civil Rights -
Nixon China ­ Trade relations Watergate
Ford - Budgets & taxation
Carter Arab Israeli Process Energy crisis
Regan Cold War Budget deficit
Bush (snr) Golf war Recession
Clinton Economy (stupid) Impeachment
Bush 9/11 Hurricane Katarina/2008

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o Often a roving ambassador for us e.g. Joe Biden
diplomatic/ceremonial role
o Sometimes given specific projects e.g. Gore. Clinton's "reinventing
govn't" programme
o Clinton's- "The era of big govn't is over"
o Outsider or inexperienced insider presidents choose insider V.P.s-
Cheney Ex-chief of staff of Whitehouse "If Cheney was…

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o Hilary Clinton- presidential rival- democrat
o Bipartisanship
Varies ­ circumstances
May be important to an outsider
o E.g. Bush- Cheny & Rice
o But not important to Kennedy
Can't always trust the cabinet or federal depts.
1. Going native
o Individual in the executive won over by the agency…

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3 million employees
o "spoils of war"
Even some mid-level (schedule C) appointments are political!
4 categories:
1. Executive depts.- 15 of them- originally state dept., war & treasury
o Cabinet secretaries manage these
o Two tiers- top tier ­ state dept. defence, treasury, justice
2. Executive agencies
o Big…

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