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In 1900 ­ population of 400m, 80% peasants.

The Manchus
Empress Cixi ruled until 1908 (her death), She was a strong conservative and resisted all attempts to reform
China the royal family lived in the Forbidden City

China was WEAK in 1900
European countries had great influence from force…

Page 2

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1913 ­ parliament (National Assembly) formed and elections held
Sun wins most of the seats for GMD, so Yuan ignores assembly.
1914 ­ Jan ­ Yuan dissolved assembly and made himself president.
12/18 provinces under his control > dictator!
1915 ­ Yuan tries to make himself emperor, but he was…

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Sun agreed that members of the CCP could belong to the GMD. Aims different, but both want a
Borodin and Galen also sent. Galen > army, defeat warlords, unify the rest of China. He set up a military
academy at Huangpu with Chiang Kaishek in charge.

1925 ­ March…

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GMD advised by general Hans Van Seeckt. Chiang surrounded the Jiangxi soviet with block
houses and 500 000 troops to starve the CCP to surrender.
V.successful. By 1934 the CCP had lost more than half of its territory.
The communists, advised by Russian agent Otto Braun decided that Mao's tactics…

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Life in GMD China
Chiang ruled as a military dictator.
He encouraged foreign investment.
He didn't deal with poor housing, ignorance and poverty.
He started the rural service, which sent students into the country side to help peasants harvest crops.
He didn't reduce the v.high taxes
There was an unpreventable…

Page 6

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High unemployment
Corruption in local gvts.
Chiang still a threat from base in Taiwan.

CCP's reforms
Govt reorganised ­ 18 provinces reduced to 6 regions in w=each region there were councils down to
provinces, counties and cities.
At each level there was a CCP official to ensure Communist policies put…

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1958 ­ the Great Leap Forward
Why? ­ In the Summer of 1958, Mao made a tour of the countryside, and was impressed by the energy of
the masses. He wanted China to overtake Britain and US in terms of industrial output.
What happened? ­ The GLF aimed to use…

Page 8

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In 1965 Mao gained the backing of Lin Baio (minister of defence). Lin abolished all ranks and all
soldiers were given a copy of Mao's little Red Book.
Began among schoolchildren and students in Beijing.
1966 ­ summer ­ students formed military groups called red guards
Schools closed for…


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