AQA GCSE History B: unit 1 - Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the League of Nations

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2. Peacemaking 1918-1919 and the
League of Nations
How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?
The impact of war
France ­ most of the fighting took place in France so over 2m had to flee from
their home and 3/4m homes were destroyed. Danger of unexploded shells and
farming land was turned into mud. Over 1m killed.
Belgium ­ Germans occupied most of Belgium for 4yrs. They took the country's
resources ­ machinery and crops. Old city of Ypres was in ruins.
Britain ­ not much damage apart from air attacks had killed over 1000 people.
Many families lost relatives or friends. Owed nearly £1billiion to USA. Nearly 1m
Germany ­ widespread starvation because Britain blocked their ports. The
retreats were not so well publicised. And some Germans suspected treachery.
Nearly 2m soldiers killed.
Russia ­ after the Bolshevik Gov took over in Nov 1917, the country became
communist (everyone is equal) and pulled out. Gave up huge areas of land to
Finland, Poland and the Ukraine. Nearly 2m soldiers killed.
What would be the effect on this damage on the decisions made by the peace
keepers? Britain ­ high status, smug, want money, do not want another war, want
Germans to suffer. Germany ­ low, close to civil war, though Britain would treat
them with respect because G ended war. France ­ wanted Alsace Lorrain back (G
took), want revenge because land is destroyed.
The aims and motives of `The big 3' at the Paris Peace Conference
Leader Country Main Aims Attitude to the
other leaders
Clemenceau France Weaken Germany as much as Lloyd George: Wilson:
A hard, tough possible. Do not Unreasonable
politician, Not allow France to be invaded completely and unrealistic.
uncompromisin again agree with him, Unpractical
g, critical 77yrs slightly
Get Alsace Lorraine back
old indecisive
Completely break Germany
back up into states
Increase population of France
Lloyd George Britain Punish Germany, not too Clemenceau: Wilson:
Realist, harshly ­ not to seek revenge Cause another Doesn't like
experienced, Protect British interests at sea war, push it too `freedom of the
the half-way to protect trading with far, seas idea',
point, will v.opinionated doesn't agree
Germany ­ money
compromise with him.

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Lose Germany's navy and
Wilson USA Make war never happen again Lloyd George: Clemenceau:
An idealist, Germany should be punished, Good ideas, not Nutty
reformer (NOT but not too harshly, like Britain. aiming high Frenchman
WELL) They should lose some enough, too Isn't prepared to
compromising create peace
territory.…read more

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West Prussia, Prosen and a bit Lost land taken from Russia
of Upper Silesia to new Poland.
Reparations 1921 - £6600million
Germany to If they weren't changed in 29,
pay Germany wouldn't have
finished paying until 1984!
Armed Germany's army limited to Navy could only build six battleships
forces 100,000men Rhineland) border between Germany
restrictions Conscription banned ­ HAD to and France) became demilitarised zone.
(military be volunteers No troops were allowed in that area.…read more

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The 14 points were unfair to Germany because:
They were going to lose 10% of their land and all overseas colonies
12.5% of its population
16% coalfields
½ iron and steel industry
They were made worse because the Germans thought all the points were aimed
at them as they ignored the fact that Austria-Hungary and turkey were treated
even more harshly.
4. The Germans felt that the Treaty of Versailles took away their pride and left them
humiliated. This is the War Guilt Clause.…read more

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Why did the League of Nations fail in its aim to keep peace?
The USA fails to join
1. Woodrow Wilson expected the USA to join because he was president and he made
up the idea, he thought everyone thought like him, he was an idealist, he was
president so her expected supporters.…read more

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Henry Cabot said that the USA have interested in Asia and the Pacific that are
more important. So the less time they spend sorting out Europe, the better. He
thought that if the USA was tied-up in Europe, her power will be destroyed.
3. Many Americans hated the idea because it would cost them a lot of money and
felt they couldn't take sides because people are emigrating from Germany and
other places in Europe that would vote.
4.…read more

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An inquiry by the Council
If these did not work, and a country ignored the League's decision, then the League could
take action:
4. It could put pressure on the guilty country bringing world opinion against it (moral
5. Members of the League could refuse to trade with the guilty country (economic
6. The armed forces of member countries could be joined together and used against
an aggressor (military force) i.e.…read more

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Made a strong pro ­ Peace statement. Countries The League had no permanent army
could discuss problems rather than declaring war. of its own
Special departments aimed to improve people lives Unsuccessful when dealing with large
e.g. refugees powerful nations e.g. Italy
When the League was set up in 1919 there was Slow to act.…read more

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By early 1933, Japan occupied the whole of Manchuria. Later in 1933, the LofN
formally condemned Japan's action. The Japanese simply left the League and
later occupied another Chinese province, Jehol.
Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 1934-1936
1896 ­ Battle of Adowa and Italy suffered a humiliating defeat (beaten by African
tribes with no good weapons). Mussolini wanted to recreate the Roman Empire.
Abyssinia had mineral deposits and fertile land ­ attractive.
1869 ­ Suez canal opened and owned and controlled by Britain and France.…read more

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Arms continued to be sold to Abyssinia
See these info sheets to help:…read more



wow this is really good! Worth reading through and taking notes

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