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Coastal Management
Coastal Weathering and erosion

Mechanical: the breakdown of rocks without changing its chemical composition.

It happens when the temperature alternates above and below 0°C (the freezing point of
water)
Water gets into the cracks of the rock.
When the water freezes it expands, which puts pressure onto the…

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Solution: weak carbonic acid in seawater dissolves rock like chalk and limestone.

Types of waves:

The waves that carry out erosional processes are
called DESTRUCTIVE WAVES.

1) Destructive waves have a high frequency
(10-14 waves per minute)
2) They're high and steep
3) Their backwash (the movement of the water…

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2) Headlands and bays form where there are alternating bands of resistant and less
resistant rock along a coast.
3) The less resistant rock (e.g. clay) is eroded quickly and forms a bay- Bays have a gentle
slope.
4) The resistant rock (e.g. chalk) is eroded more slowly and it's…

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Traction- large particles like boulders are pushed along the sea bed by the force of the
water.

Suspension- small particles like silt and clay are carried along in the water

Saltation- pebble sized particles are bounced along the sea bed by the force of the water.

Solution- soluble materials dissolve…

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Spits are just beaches that stick out into the sea- they're joined to the coast at one end. If a spit
sticks out so far that it connects with another bit of the mainland, it'll form a bar. Spits and bars
are formed by the process of longshore drift.

Spits…

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The Sea Level is Rising due to Global Warming

The global sea level is rising at about 2mm per year. This might not sound like a lot, but sea level has
increased by about 20cm in the past century. It's predicted to rise about 18-59cm by 2100. The
cause of…

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The government has to make policies to reduce the impacts of future flooding. They can do things
like building more or better flood defences or they can manage the use of areas that might be
flooded e.g. by stopping people living there.

COASTAL EROSION CASE STUDY- HOLDERNESS COASTLINE (Mappleton)

The…

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4) There's a sea wall, wooden groynes and rock armour at Hornsea that protect the village
from erosion and flooding.
5) Bridlington is protected from erosion and flooding by a 4.7km long sea wall as well as
wooden groynes.

The strategies are locally successful but cause problems elsewhere

1) Groynes…

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Environmental - Habitats were flooded and contaminated- wildlife that couldn't move out of
reach of the floodwater was in danger.

Political impacts- Bangladesh is very poor and they cannot afford to prepare properly for flood
disaster. Some areas have raised flood shelters but there are not enough. Difficult decisions
need…

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Snakes and lizards have thick, scaly skin to reduce water loss from their bodies. It also
protects them from rough undergrowth on the Heathland.

Facts needed for formation

A plentiful supply of sand
Strong winds to transport sand particles through Saltation (bouncing)
An obstacle to trap sand e.g. a plant.…

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