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Topic 1 ­ Qualitative Analysis
Demonstrate an understanding that analysis may be qualitative or quantitative.
Explain why the test for any ion must be unique.
Purity of drinking water.
Describe tests to show:
­ Aluminium, Calcium, Copper, Iron (II) and Iron (III)
­ Ammonium plus sodium hydroxide solution
­ Cl, Br, I using dilute nitric acid and silver nitrate solution.…read more

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Water Testing
Qualitative: Investigation into what kind of substances are present.
Quantitative: Investigation into the amount of substances that are present.
Flame tests are qualitative:
­ If 2 metal ions produce a similar colour, you could get Flame Test recap:
the wrong identification. Potassium ­ lilac
Calcium ­ brick red
­ So, you can add acid and silver nitrate, which
Copper ­ green
forms a precipitate. This can identify some anions Sodium - yellow
in a more clear way.…read more

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Testing for Cations using Sodium
Hydroxide:
Cation Symbol Effect of adding Sodium Name of precipitate
Hydroxide formed
Aluminium Al³+ Precipitate formed Aluminium Hydroxide
Cloudy (white) (limewater)
Calcium Ca²+ Precipitate formed Calcium Hydroxide
Cloudy (white)
Copper Cu²+ Pale blue precipitate Copper Hydroxide
formed
Iron (II) Fe²+ Green precipitate Iron Hydroxide
Iron (III) Fe³+ Precipitate formed Iron Hydroxide
Cloudy (brown(rust))
Copper sulfate + sodium hydroxide copper hydroxide + sodium sulfate
CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 +Na2SO4…read more

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Qualitative tests are carried out before
quantitative tests
1) If the precipitate formed is brown, the ion present is _______________
2) If the precipitate formed is white, the ion could be ______ or _______
3) The level of salt in food is: quantitative or qualitative?
4) The source of pollution in a river is: quantitative or qualitative?
5) aluminium sulfate + sodium hydroxide __________ + ____________…read more

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Qualitative tests are carried out before
quantitative tests
1) If the precipitate formed is brown, the ion present is Iron (III)
2) If the precipitate formed is white, the ion could be Calcium or Aluminium
3) The level of salt in food is: quantitative or qualitative?
4) The source of pollution in a river is: quantitative or qualitative?
5) aluminium sulfate + sodium hydroxide aluminium hydroxide + sodium sulfate…read more

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