The Cold War Revision Notes

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The Grand Formed in 1941
Alliance Made from Britain, USA and USSR
Tehran Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt
Conference Agreements:
1943 Britain and USA open a second front to split German defences and relieve pressure from USSR
USSR declare war on Japan once Germany were defeated
Poland to be given land from Germany but give some to USSR
Stalin thought Britain wanted USSR to suffer fatal losses to Germany
Churchill thought USSR wanted to spread its influences west and wanted to stop it
Yalta Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt
Conference Agreements:
1945 Germany be demilitarised and forced to pay reparations (6.6 billion)
Nazi Party banned
UN established (replace league of nations)
Poland which was already communist, to become part of Soviet `sphere of influence' but be more
USA doesn't want Poland to be a communist country
Potsdam Churchill, Stalin and Truman
Conference Agreements:
1945 Nazi leaders (war criminals) prosecuted at Nuremburg
Reduce Germany in size
Divide Germany and Berlin into four zones.
Reparations to be taken from the zones. USSR be given some from the others (1/4)
USA doesn't want Germany to be punished to harshly (USSR does)
USA developed a nuclear bomb ­ Truman believes he should be in charge
Churchill's Iron Europe was divided between capitalists (west) and communists (east).
Curtain Speech Stalin responds by comparing Churchill to Hitler
1946 Beginning of the `war of words'
The Long Truman receives word that USSR is building up its military power. Stalin was calling for destruction of
Telegram capitalism.
1946 No peace with USSR
Novikov's Stalin learns USA desires to dominate the world. USA didn't want to cooperate with the USSR. USA was
Telegram preparing for war.
Truman Unofficial start to the Cold War
Doctrine World had to choose between communist `tyranny' and democratic freedom
1947 USA would fight for freedom wherever it was threated
USA send troops and financial aid to countries threated by communism
Communism shouldn't be allowed to grow and gain territory
Suggested the USA not the UN was responsible for protecting the world.

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Ended USA tradition of `isolationism' from international affairs
Divided the world according to ideology between capitalists and communists
Ended the Grand Alliance and started the Cold War
Launched the new American policy of `containment' of communism
The Marshall Financial package that supported the Truman Doctrine
Plan $13bn of US money to help rebuild Europe after WW2
1947 Designed to weaken the appeal of communism
Countries taking the trade would agree to trade freely with USA ­ boost US economy
Many countries were keen to accept…read more

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Consequences Nagy arrested and then executed in USSR. New communist leader of Hungary appointed by the USSR.
USSR a clear signal to other satellite states that the USSR will not allow reforms and states to leave the
Warsaw Pact
International reaction
Despite promises of support the USA do nothing to support Hungary? No military assistance
USSR's actions sent a strong message to other communist countries to discourage them from
acting like Hungary
Causes 2.7 million East Germans escaping communist GDR East Germany. Many skilled workers.…read more

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Castro wanted the USSR to station nuclear missiles in Cuba. He believed it would stop the USA
from invading. It would also allow the USSR to accurately strike key US cities which it hadn't
been able to before
Events Hawks vs Doves
Throughout the crisis advisors from both sides were split into groups. Doves wanted to avoid a
nuclear war and advised diplomatic strategies to prevent conflict. Hawks demanded retaliation
and an aggressive policy towards the other side.…read more

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Political parties allowed
More power to the people
Introduction of capitalism into the economy
Consequences USSR Brezhnev not happy.
Tries to get Dubcek to stop reforms but fails
USSR invades CZ to stop it undermining communism
Establishment of the Brezhnev Doctrine USSR has right to invade any Eastern European country that
threatens communism.
Some communists not happy
Split ­ China, Yugoslavia, and western Europe communists
USA condemns the invasion but is busy in Vietnam so does nothing.…read more

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Events Carter Doctrine 1980
SALT 2 negotiations fail ­ Treaty not signed by US congress
1980 Moscow Olympics boycott by USA
1984 LA Olympics boycotted by USSR and Eastern Bloc
Consequences Increasing Hostility and tensions between the USA and USSR.…read more

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Pressure on the USSR itself and encouraged Soviet Republics to demand greater independence
from the USSR
This ultimately led to the breakup of the USSR and the end of the Cold War…read more


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