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What is Succession?
· Succession is the change in environment over time.
Organisms colonise the area and while being there, change
the environment so much that they make it unsuitable for
them to live there but suitable for other organisms to live
there, which happens through competition.…read more

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Primary Succession
· This is when succession happens to bare
soil first where no organisms have been
before. This happened on the island of
Surtsey in Iceland. The first organisms to
colonise the area are usually algae
which can tolerate the harsh conditions
with almost no nutrients in the soil.
These organisms are called pioneer
species. After a long time a stable
community establishes that no longer
changes and is the dominant species.
This species is called the climax
community. This is usually woodland in
England.…read more

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Secondary Succession
· This is when succession
happens on ground that
has already had plants
on it before but they
have been destroyed,
by a natural disaster or
by human means like
burning.…read more

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Deflected Succession
· This is when succession is stopped from
happening by human means, for example a
golf course next to the sea..…read more

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Measuring Succession
· To measure the change across an area you need a
· To measure abundance or distribution you need a
quadrat. To use a quadrat and measure the %
cover of a plant, you need to count the number of
squares the plant covers. You can measure the
abundance of organisms like limpets on a shore by
counting the number of individuals in the
· (Go back to the feildwork trip notes)…read more

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