Stuff like cloning, adaptation, dah di dah...

Description of main topics as well as exam questions.

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  • Created on: 27-01-11 21:56
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June 2010
-Science Exams-
~B1B~Evolution and Environment
>>Adaptation for survival
>>How people affect the planet
Adaptation for survival
-An adaptation is a feature that enables an organism to survive in its habitat
- Allows animals and plants to live and cope with their habitat in different conditions, e.g. arid (very dry)
-Adaptations are usually special features that help animals and plants to survive, e.g.: birds having a
particular beak for a type of seed, making it easier for the bird to eat.
- Can also be a type of behaviour: for example the act of penguins huddling together to keep
themselves warm.
Camel Adaptations
-hump stores fat for insulation of heat
-sandy colour is a good camouflage
-long legs to keep body above the hot desert floor
-lots of water can be stored (not in the hump!) so can go without water for weeks.
-camels can drink about 10 litres of water per minute
-Long eyelashes- keep sand out of eyes
-Big, wide feet increases its surface area, making it easier to walk on the sand
Polar Bear Adaptations
-White fur acts as a good camouflage to sneak up on prey
-Thick fat layer under fur for warmth and as a food store
-small ears reduce surface area, prevent excess heat loss
-big, wide feet stop it from sinking into the snow
-big claws for catching prey
-Thick fur which is warm and waterproof
-Strong legs for swimming and running
>> [competition]
-In nature, competition means animals and plants competing for resources that are in short supply
- Plants compete for the following:
>> Space
>> Light
>> Water
>> Nutrients from the soil
Animals compete for the following:

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When resources are limited, only the best adapted organisms will survive
A Weed's Properties
-grows quickly and flowers twice a year
-Resistant to a lot of weed killers
-grows quickly on bare soil
-roots produce chemicals that stop other plants from growing
-has deep roots which are difficult to remove
-leaves spread out over ground
-seeds germinate rapidly
-produces many seeds which are spread by the wind
This weed makes a good competitor because:
~it produces many seeds
~seeds germinate quickly in bad soil
~grow…read more

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Process of Dolly the sheep
Now plants can be produced quickly and rather cheaply due to cuttings of older plants ­see GCSE purple
revision book. The plants produced from this have the same genetic information as the parent plant,
inheriting useful characteristics e.g. flower colour, scent and number of flowers. To gain the best results,
the plants are put to be developed in a damp atmosphere until the roots develop.…read more

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Genetic Engineering
When the body cannot make a specific protein, a disease is often the result like diabetics cannot produce
sufficient amounts of insulin. Due to the genetic engineering, we can now make a lot of these proteins.
Genetic engineering means transferring genes from one type of cell to another
Genes carry instructions for how the body functions and with genetic engineering, microbe cells divide to
produce a large scale of useful chemicals.…read more

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Process of Genetic Engineering
Fossils are the preserved remains of animals and plants from millions of years ago
Fossils are formed by:
~Due to the denser, harder parts of organisms not decaying [e.g. bones, teeth and scales] are instead
buried by sediment and are gradually transformed to rock. The hard parts become replaced by minerals
giving an exact copy.…read more

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Exposure to ionising radiation [see Physics section] e.g. UV light, X-rays and radiation from radioactive
substances. The more intense the radiation, the greater the chance of mutation
- Certain chemicals can cause mutations
*Evolution is the gradual change in the characteristics of a species over time.
Evolution is a theory that proclaims that all living things of present day (wow that sounds quite posh!)
evolved from simple life forms from more than 3 billion years ago.…read more

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Herbicides Pesticides
Water Fertiliser
Toxic chemicals
Smoke Gases
>>Acid Rain
Burning fossil fuels may release sulphur dioxide & nitrogen oxides. These gases dissolve in rain making
it more acidic.
Acidic rain can: ~cause
trees to lose all their leaves ~increases acidic
pH of lakes and rivers so little fishies and crabs (aquatic life) are killed
>>The "greenhouse effect"
This "greenhouse effect" is when the solar radiation from the Sun reaches the Earth's atmosphere.…read more

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Less trees available to absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen and therefore, less carbon dioxide is
removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis.
Results from too many fertilisers being washed from the soil into lakes and rivers
This is how it goes, the circle of life (nothing to do with Lion King)...…read more

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Sample Question time!!!!!! That's not too exciting but... I don't know...
This question considers adaptation. Okay, so what if I'm doing multiple choices? This thing will help me
for sure! I think.
The vole is a small mouse like animal. Voles found on some cold islands to the North of Scotland are
much larger than voles found in warmer area such as southern France.
Explain how natural selection may have caused the northern voles to be larger in size.…read more

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Who tells you that you have the right to cheat? Nonsense what cheek! You even look for a
flicker and well, I can definitely not do something about it!!!
Adaptation and Competition
1. Name 3 physical factors that affect organisms.
2. Why do polar bears have a thick coat and lots of body fat?
3. Why do camels have long legs?
4. Why does the cactus have leaves that are small spines?
5. Name 2 things that plants compete with each other for
6.…read more


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